Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 92, Issue 2, pp 215–223 | Cite as

The Role of Water in Protection Against Thermal Deterioration of Liquid Margarine

  • Bente KirkhusEmail author
  • Amandine Lamglait
  • Ivar Storrø
  • Gjermund Vogt
  • Elisabeth Olsen
  • Frank Lundby
  • Håkon Standal
Original Paper


The thermal stability of liquid margarine and vegetable oils was investigated by measuring the oxidative stability index (OSI) at temperatures ranging from 90 to 180 °C, whereas total polar compounds (TPC) and tocopherols (vitamin E) were measured during heating at 180 °C in frying trays. Results showed that the OSI of liquid margarine was in the same range as the OSI of vegetable oils at lower temperatures, but at 160 and 180 °C, liquid margarine had significantly higher thermal stability, close to that observed for hard margarine and butter. The increased stability was confirmed by lower levels of TPC and a smaller relative reduction in vitamin E content during heating. Variations between different vegetable oils could partly be explained by differences in degree of saturation and level of vitamin E, with high oleic sunflower oil being the most stable oil at all temperatures. The water in liquid margarine vaporized within 1.5 min at 160 °C, and it is hypothesized that volatile pro-oxidants are removed with the water, inducing a delay in deterioration. The results indicate a role for water in preventing lipid oxidation and decomposition in fat emulsion products at 160–180 °C, suggesting that liquid margarine, low in saturated fat, may be the healthier and preferable alternative for pan-frying compared to other liquid vegetable oils.


Frying Vegetable oils Liquid margarine Thermal stability 



Relative number of double bonds


Design of experiments


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Oxidative stability index


Sunflower oil


Total polar compounds



The study was supported by grants from the Norwegian food company Mills DA and the Research Council of Norway. The funding is highly appreciated. Margarines, butter and vegetable oils were kindly provided by Mills DA, Norway. The authors also want to thank Marte Schei at SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, Norway, for technical assistance.

Conflict of interest

Amandine Lamglait and Bente Kirkhus were employees at Mills DA when parts of the study were conducted.


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Copyright information

© AOCS 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bente Kirkhus
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amandine Lamglait
    • 2
  • Ivar Storrø
    • 3
  • Gjermund Vogt
    • 1
  • Elisabeth Olsen
    • 1
    • 4
  • Frank Lundby
    • 1
  • Håkon Standal
    • 5
  1. 1.Nofima AS—Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture ResearchÅsNorway
  2. 2.Mills DAOsloNorway
  3. 3.SINTEF Fisheries and AquacultureTrondheimNorway
  4. 4.Arcus ASOsloNorway
  5. 5.Prediktor ASFredrikstadNorway

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