Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 90, Issue 8, pp 1203–1212 | Cite as

Effect of Extraction Solvent on Oil and Bioactives Composition of Commercial Indian Niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.) Seed

  • Ajit Singh Bhatnagar
  • Ambale Gundappa Gopala Krishna
Original Paper


Commercially available niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.) seed was investigated to evaluate the effect of extraction solvent on oil and bioactives composition. For this purpose, niger seeds were subjected to solvent extraction using solvents of different polarity, viz., hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and ethanol. The oil content of niger seeds obtained after extraction with solvents of different polarities was in the range of 31.8–41.3 g/100 g. The extracted oil was characterized by the following parameters: color (40.0–95.0 Lovibond units), free fatty acids (3.6–12.3 g/100 g), peroxide value (3.2–7.8 mequiv O2/kg), iodine value (137.6–140.3 cg I2/g), saponification value (177.3–185.9 mg KOH/g) and unsaponifiable matter (1.3–4.3 g/100 g). Among fatty acids, linoleic acid (69.4–73.2 %) was the major fatty acid and trilinolein (31.2–33.4 %) was the major triacylglycerol. The composition of bioactive molecules was 171.9–345.8 ppm of total tocopherols; 247.1–2,647.7 ppm of total phenolics; 1,249.6–6,309.3 ppm of total sterols and 18.9–181.0 ppm of total carotenoids. Among the tocopherols, α-tocopherol was the major component with 154–276 ppm. Of the total phenolics, vanillic acid with 176–1,709 ppm was the major phenolic compound in the oil extracted using different solvents. Ethanol-extracted oil showed a 13.9-fold better oxidative stability and a higher radical scavenging activity (IC50 value of 9.2 mg/mL) compared to hexane-extracted oil (IC50 value of 40.3 mg/mL). This is probably the first report of its kind on solvent extractability of bioactives of niger seed.


Indian niger seeds (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.) Quality characteristics Stability Bioactives Radical scavenging activity 


  1. 1.
    Dutta PC, Helmersson S, Kebedu E, Appelqvist LA (1994) Variation in lipid composition of niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) samples collected from different regions in Ethiopia. J Am Oil Chem Soc 71:839–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dagne K, Jonsson A (1997) Oil content and fatty acid composition of seeds of Guizotia Cass. (Compositae). J Sci Food Agri 73:274–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramadan MF, Moersel JT (2002) Proximate neutral lipid composition of niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) seed. Czech J Food Sci 20:98–104Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marini F, Magrì AL, Marini D, Balestrieri F (2003) Characterization of the lipid fraction of Niger seeds (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) from different regions of Ethiopia and India and chemometric authentication of their geographical origin. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 105:697–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Geleta M, Stymne S, Bryngelsson T (2011) Variation and inheritance of oil content and fatty acid composition in niger (Guizotia abyssinica). J Food Comp Anal 24:995–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ramadan MF (2012) Functional properties, nutritional value and industrial applications of Niger Oilseeds (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.). Cri Rev Food Sci Nutr 52:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. Based on 4th Advance Estimates released by Ministry of Agriculture on 19.07.2010. Accessed 20 March 2011
  8. 8.
    Ramadan MF, Morsel JT (2003) Analysis of glycolipids from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) oilseeds. Food Chem 80:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramadan MF, Moersel JT (2003) Phospholipid composition of niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) seed oil. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und- Technologie 36:273–276Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ramadan MF, Kroh LW, Moersel JT (2003) Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions. J Agri Food Chem 51:6961–6969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ramadan MF, Moersel JT (2004) Oxidative stability of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils upon stripping. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 106:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Firestone D (1998) Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists Society, AOCS method no. Ai 2-75, AOCS method no. Ca 5a-40, AOCS method no. Cd 8-53, AOCS method no. Cd 3c-91, AOCS method no. Cd 1-25, AOCS method no. Ca 6a-40, AOCS method no. Ce 1-62, AOCS method no. Ce 5b-89, AOCS method no. Ce 8-89, 5th edn. AOCS press, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Taga MS, Miller EE, Pratt DE (1984) Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61:928–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Siger A, Nogala-Kalucka M, Lampart-Szczapa E (2008) The content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in cold-pressed plant oils. J Food Lipids 15:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sabir SM, Hayat I, Gardezi SDA (2003) Estimation of sterols in edible fats and oils. Pak J Nutr 2(3):178–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ranganna S (1977) Plant pigments. In: Manual of analysis of fruits and vegetables products. Tata McGraw-Hill Co., New Delhi, pp 73–77Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bhatnagar AS, Prasanth Kumar PK, Hemavathy J, Gopala Krishna AG (2009) Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, and radical scavenging activity of vegetable oil blends with coconut oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 86(10):991–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Graphpad instat demo-[DATASET1.ISD]. Graphpad Software Inc. 11452, EI Camino Real, #215, San Diego, 92130 USA. Accessed 9 Jan 2012
  19. 19.
    Wan PJ, Wakelyn PJ (1997) Technology and solvents for extracting oilseeds and nonpetroleum oils. ISBN: 0935315810. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 186, 189, 192, 193Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Getinet A, Sharma SM (1996) Niger. Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 5. Institute of plant genetics and crop plant research, Gatersleben (Germany)/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, RomeGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christie WW (2012) The lipid library. Accessed 20 March 2012

Copyright information

© AOCS 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajit Singh Bhatnagar
    • 1
  • Ambale Gundappa Gopala Krishna
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Lipid Science and Traditional FoodsCSIR-Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations