Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 437–445 | Cite as

The Effect of Limonene on the Crystallization of Cocoa Butter

  • Joydeep Ray
  • William MacNaughtan
  • Peng Siong Chong
  • Josélio Vieira
  • Bettina WolfEmail author
Original Article


The formulation of reduced fat chocolate has been of interest to the confectionery industry for a considerable time. It presents a challenge, as fat reduction strategies are often accompanied by poor quality of the formulated product due to an increased viscosity of the molten chocolate. This causes difficulties during processing and poor sensory properties of the final product. The addition of limonene to chocolates leads to fat reduced chocolates that are less hard and have a lower melt viscosity. This study was undertaken to shed light on the changes produced by the addition of limonene on the crystallization and microstructure of cocoa butter. Based on evidence obtained by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy, it is proposed that the presence of limonene enhances the production of lower polymorphic forms on cooling but accelerates the transformation to more stable polymorphic forms. This is demonstrated in the transformation of the α and β′IV forms in cocoa butter to form βV at early storage times (t = 0–1 week), and the transformation to form βVI at times >2–3 weeks at 20 °C. There is a complex but marked effect on crystal size, mainly at early storage times.


Cocoa butter Limonene Crystallization Chocolate Polymorphism Differential scanning calorimetry X-ray diffraction Polarized light microscopy 



The authors would like to thank Mr. Michael Clos (Nestlé PTC York) for preparing the tempered samples, and Mrs. Val Street (University of Nottingham) for support with the laboratory work.


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Copyright information

© AOCS 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joydeep Ray
    • 1
    • 3
  • William MacNaughtan
    • 1
  • Peng Siong Chong
    • 2
  • Josélio Vieira
    • 2
  • Bettina Wolf
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Food Sciences Sutton Bonington Campus, School of BiosciencesThe University of NottinghamLoughboroughUK
  2. 2.Nestlé Product Technology Centre YorkYorkUK
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK

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