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Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 88, Issue 12, pp 2023–2034 | Cite as

Physical Properties of Nutritive Shortenings Produced from Regioselective Hardening of Soybean Oil with Pt Containing Zeolite

  • An Philippaerts
  • Annika Breesch
  • Gert De Cremer
  • Pieterjan Kayaert
  • Johan Hofkens
  • Guy Van den Mooter
  • Pierre Jacobs
  • Bert SelsEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Soybean oil was partially hydrogenated using Pt supported in microporous zeolite ZSM-5 and on mesoporous alumina at various IV. Their fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition were determined with GC and HPLC, respectively, and their physical characteristics were monitored by the slip melting point, solid fat content, melting and crystallization thermograms, polymorphism behavior, and the crystal and solid fat network formation. Both the chemical and physical properties were compared with commercial fat samples. Usage of Pt instead of Ni results in a significant reduction in trans fatty acids in the hardened fat. Moreover, the catalyst support of Pt, viz. zeolite ZSM-5 versus γ-alumina, markedly affects the TAG composition. Pt/alumina fats contain large amounts of SSS and polyunsaturates (PUFA), making them unsuitable for shortening application. Because of the (regio)selective hydrogenation property of Pt/ZSM-5, sn-2 unsaturates are hydrogenated faster, yielding an enrichment of intermediately reduced TAG. In addition, this unique fat composition shows a high nutritional added-value (high content of oleate, very low content of trans fatty acids, and low content of cholesterol-raising palmitate and myristate) and high thermal stability (very low in linolenate). Moreover, their melting characteristics perfectly match those of commercial shortenings. Pt/zeolite hardened soybean oil contains spherulitic crystals with orthorhombic β′ molecular packing, arranged in an open, flexible solid network, in accordance with their high plasticity.

Keywords

Hydrogenation Soybean oil Pt/ZSM-5 catalyst Shortening Hardening Melting behavior Crystallization Solid fat content Polymorphism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

A.P. acknowledges the F.W.O.-Vlaanderen (Research Foundation—Flanders) for a doctoral fellowship and P.K. the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT—Vlaanderen) for a Ph.D. grant. The authors acknowledge the Flemish government for a long term sponsoring (Methusalem, CASAS). We are grateful to Vandemoortele (Izegem, Belgium) for measuring the solid fat content of the hydrogenated fat samples.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (WMV 807 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (WMV 869 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (WMV 447 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (WMV 633 kb)

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Copyright information

© AOCS 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • An Philippaerts
    • 1
  • Annika Breesch
    • 1
  • Gert De Cremer
    • 1
  • Pieterjan Kayaert
    • 2
  • Johan Hofkens
    • 3
  • Guy Van den Mooter
    • 2
  • Pierre Jacobs
    • 1
  • Bert Sels
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of M2SK.U.LeuvenHeverlee, LeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Laboratory Farmacotechnology and BiopharmacyK.U.LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryK.U.LeuvenHeverlee, LeuvenBelgium

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