Physical Properties of trans-Free Bakery Shortening Produced by Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification
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Lipase-catalyzed interesterified solid fat was produced with fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO), and rapeseed oil (RSO) and palm stearin (PS) in a weight ratio of 15:20:65, 15:40:45 and 15:50:35. The interesterified fats contained palmitic (27.8–44.6%), stearic (15.6–16.2%), oleic (27.5–36.5%) and linoleic acids (8.0–13.5%). After interesterification of the blends, the physical properties of the products changed and showed lower melting points and solid fat contents, different melting and crystallization behaviors as well as the formation of more stable crystals. The produced interesterified fats (FHSBO:RSO:PS 15:20:65, 15:40:45 and 15:50:35 blends) contained desirable crystal polymorphism (β′ form) as determined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, a long plastic range with solid fat content of 51–63% at 10 °C to 4–12% at 40 °C, and melting points of 39 (15:50:35), 42 (15:50:45) and 45 °C (15:20:65). However, a reduction in tocopherols (α and γ) content and a reduced oxidative stability were observed in the interesterified fats. The physical properties of the interesterifed fats were influenced by the amount of PS, resulting in more hardness and higher solid fat contents for 15:20:65 than 15:40:45 and 15:50:35 blends. The present study suggested that the produced interesterified fats containing trans-free fatty acids could be used as alternatives to hydrogenated types of bakery shortenings.
KeywordsCrystallization Interesterification Lipase Melting point Palm stearin Polymorphism Rapeseed oil Solid fat content
This work was supported by the Korean Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD), (KRF-2005-214-C00251).
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