The mass balance of saponins during processing of soy protein isolates (SPI) was established, and the effects of precipitating and washing (P/W) temperatures (0, 10, 25, 40, and 50°C) on the retention of isoflavones and saponins were investigated in this study. About 41% of total saponins in soy flour (SF) were found to remain in SPI during processing, whereas 42% remained unextracted in the solid waste. None was detected in the whey or wash water. The study also revealed that only about 27% of total isoflavones from SF remained in the final SPI when P/W was performed at 50°C. As much as 40% of the total isoflavones could be retained in SPI when P/W was conducted at 25, 10, or 0°C. When the P/W temperature was 50°C, the percentages of total isoflavones lost during extraction, precipitation, and washing were 28, 22, and 6%, respectively. When the temperature was changed to 0°C, the percentages of isoflavones lost during extraction, precipitation, and washing were 28, 11, and 5%, respectively. The P/W temperatures did not affect the distribution of saponins in different streams during the processing of SPI. Lowering the P/W temperature did not significantly lower the protein content in SPI unless the temperature was reduced to 0°C.
HPLC/UV/ELSD isoflavones mass balance saponins soy protein isolates