Calcium coagulation properties of hydrothermally processed soymilk
- 222 Downloads
The effects of hydrothermal cooking (HTC), a steam-injection process otherwise known as jet cooking, on the calcium salt coagulation properties of soymilk were determined. Full-fat soymilk was processed at five different conditions (traditional kettle cooking at 100°C for 5 min, HTC at 100°C for 20 s, HTC at 134°C for 26 s, HTC at 154°C for 31 s, and HTC at 162°C for 35 s) and coagulated at four calcium chloride concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30%). Tofu yields and recoveries of dry matter and protein in the coagulated curd followed similar trends with increasing calcium chloride concentration, namely, an initial increase rising to a peak followed by a decrease. HTC-processed soymilks, especially those processed at high temperature (162°C), gave lower tofu yields and lower recoveries of dry matter and protein in tofu. HTC-processed soymilks, especially those processed at 134°C or higher, resulted in very soft, fragile, and adhesive tofu. The high calcium salt tolerance of HTC-processed soymilk might be used to improve dispersion stability of calcium-fortified soy-based dairy analogs.
Key WordsCoagulation jet cooking protein soybeans soymilk soy protein tofu
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Liu, K., Soybeans: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization, Aspen Publishing, Gaithersburg, MD, 1997.Google Scholar
- 3.Fukushima, D., Soy Proteins for Foods Centering Around Soy Sauce and Tofu, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58:346–354 (1981).Google Scholar
- 4.Johnson, L.A., C.W. Deyoe, and W.J. Hoover, Soymilk Process, U.S. Patent 4,409,256 (1981).Google Scholar
- 5.Hung, J.S., Studies on Processing, Functional Characteristics, and Nutritional Quality of Hydrothermal Extracts of Soybeans, Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 1984.Google Scholar
- 6.Kim, C.J., Physico-chemical, Nutritional, and Flavor Properties of Soybean Extracts Processed by Rapid-Hydration Hydrothermal Cooking, Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, 1988.Google Scholar
- 8.Hashizume, K., and T. Watanabe, Influence of Heating Temperatures on Conformational Changes of Soybean Proteins, Agr. Biol. Chem. 43:683–690 (1979).Google Scholar
- 10.Zemel, M.B., and L.A. Shelef, Method of Making Calcium Fortified Soy Milk and the Calcium Fortified Soy Milk, U.S. Patent 4,906,482 (1990).Google Scholar
- 11.Wang, C., and L.A. Johnson, Functional Properties of Hydrothermally Cooked Protein Products, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78:189–195 (2001).Google Scholar
- 12.Saio, K., M. Kamiya, and T. Watanabe, Food Processing Characteristics of Soybean 11S and 7S Proteins. Part 1. Effect of Difference of Protein Components Among Soybean Varieties on Formation of Tofu-Gel, Agr. Biol. Chem. 33:1301–1308 (1969).Google Scholar
- 13.SAS Institute, Inc., SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computers, 6th edn., Cary, NC, 1987.Google Scholar
- 14.Kinsella, J.E., S. Damodaran, and B. German, Seed Storage Proteins, in New Protein Foods, Vol. 5, edited by A.M. Altschul and H.L. Milcke, Academic Press, New York, 1985, p. 107.Google Scholar