Advertisement

Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 80, Issue 12, pp 1225–1229 | Cite as

Calcium coagulation properties of hydrothermally processed soymilk

Article

Abstract

The effects of hydrothermal cooking (HTC), a steam-injection process otherwise known as jet cooking, on the calcium salt coagulation properties of soymilk were determined. Full-fat soymilk was processed at five different conditions (traditional kettle cooking at 100°C for 5 min, HTC at 100°C for 20 s, HTC at 134°C for 26 s, HTC at 154°C for 31 s, and HTC at 162°C for 35 s) and coagulated at four calcium chloride concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30%). Tofu yields and recoveries of dry matter and protein in the coagulated curd followed similar trends with increasing calcium chloride concentration, namely, an initial increase rising to a peak followed by a decrease. HTC-processed soymilks, especially those processed at high temperature (162°C), gave lower tofu yields and lower recoveries of dry matter and protein in tofu. HTC-processed soymilks, especially those processed at 134°C or higher, resulted in very soft, fragile, and adhesive tofu. The high calcium salt tolerance of HTC-processed soymilk might be used to improve dispersion stability of calcium-fortified soy-based dairy analogs.

Key Words

Coagulation jet cooking protein soybeans soymilk soy protein tofu 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lu, J.Y., E. Carter, and R.A. Chung, Use of Calcium Salts for Soybean Curd Preparation, J. Food Sci. 45:32–34 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu, K., Soybeans: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization, Aspen Publishing, Gaithersburg, MD, 1997.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fukushima, D., Soy Proteins for Foods Centering Around Soy Sauce and Tofu, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58:346–354 (1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Johnson, L.A., C.W. Deyoe, and W.J. Hoover, Soymilk Process, U.S. Patent 4,409,256 (1981).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hung, J.S., Studies on Processing, Functional Characteristics, and Nutritional Quality of Hydrothermal Extracts of Soybeans, Ph.D. Dissertation, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 1984.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim, C.J., Physico-chemical, Nutritional, and Flavor Properties of Soybean Extracts Processed by Rapid-Hydration Hydrothermal Cooking, Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, 1988.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnson, L.A., C.W. Deyoe, and W.J. Hoover, Yield and Quality of Soymilk Processed by Steam-Infusion Cooking, J. Food Sci. 46:239–243, 248 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hashizume, K., and T. Watanabe, Influence of Heating Temperatures on Conformational Changes of Soybean Proteins, Agr. Biol. Chem. 43:683–690 (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weingartner, K.E., A.I. Nelson, and J.W. Erdman Jr., Effects of Calcium Addition on Stability and Sensory Properties of Soy Beverage, J. Food Sci. 48:256–257 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zemel, M.B., and L.A. Shelef, Method of Making Calcium Fortified Soy Milk and the Calcium Fortified Soy Milk, U.S. Patent 4,906,482 (1990).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, C., and L.A. Johnson, Functional Properties of Hydrothermally Cooked Protein Products, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 78:189–195 (2001).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saio, K., M. Kamiya, and T. Watanabe, Food Processing Characteristics of Soybean 11S and 7S Proteins. Part 1. Effect of Difference of Protein Components Among Soybean Varieties on Formation of Tofu-Gel, Agr. Biol. Chem. 33:1301–1308 (1969).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    SAS Institute, Inc., SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computers, 6th edn., Cary, NC, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kinsella, J.E., S. Damodaran, and B. German, Seed Storage Proteins, in New Protein Foods, Vol. 5, edited by A.M. Altschul and H.L. Milcke, Academic Press, New York, 1985, p. 107.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Center for Crops Utilization ResearchIowa State UniversityAmes

Personalised recommendations