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Lipids

, Volume 50, Issue 10, pp 945–953 | Cite as

Fucoxanthin Enhances Chain Elongation and Desaturation of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in HepG2 Cells

  • Meng-Ting Wu
  • Hui-Min Su
  • Yi Cui
  • Anthony Windust
  • Hong-Nong Chou
  • Ching-jang HuangEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Dietary fucoxanthin (FX), a carotenoid compound from brown algae, was found to increase docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in the liver of mice. DHA and ARA are known to be biosynthesized from the respective precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6), through desaturation and chain elongation. We examined the effect of FX on the fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 cells (Hepatocellular carcinoma, human). In the first experiment, cells were co-treated with ALA (100 μM) and FX (0–100 μM) or vehicle for 48 h. FX increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3), DHA at concentrations of ≥50 μM. To clarify the change in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), in the second experiment, cells were co-treated with universally-[13C]-labeled (U-[13C]-) ALA (100 μM) and FX (100 μM) for 0.5, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. [13C] labeled-EPA, DPA and DHA content in HepG2 cells were all increased by FX after 48 h treatment. Furthermore, estimated delta-5 desaturase (D5D) but not delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity index was increased at 48 h. These results suggested that FX may enhance the conversion of ALA to longer chain n-3 PUFA through increasing D5D activity in the liver.

Keywords

Fucoxanthin Delta-5 desaturase Elongation ALA EPA DHA n-3 PUFA 

Abbreviations

ACOX-1

Acyl-CoA oxidase-1

ARA

Arachidonic acid

ALA

α-Linolenic acid

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

D5D

Delta-5 desaturase

D6D

Delta-6 desaturase

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

DGLA

Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid

DPA

Docosapentaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

ETA

Eicosatetraenoic acid

FAME

Fatty acid methyl ester

FBS

Fetal bovine serum

FX

Fucoxanthin

GLA

γ-Linolenic acid

LNA

Linoleic acid

LXRα

Liver X receptor α

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

OLA

Oleic acid

PPARα

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SCD1

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1

SDA

Stearidonic acid

SREBP

Sterol regulatory element binding protein

U-[13C]-

Universally [13C]-labeled

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by a grant from the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC 99-2313-B-002-013-MY3 and NSC 98-2313-B-002-002-MY3).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11745_2015_4059_MOESM1_ESM.docx (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 46 kb)

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Copyright information

© AOCS 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meng-Ting Wu
    • 1
  • Hui-Min Su
    • 2
  • Yi Cui
    • 3
  • Anthony Windust
    • 3
  • Hong-Nong Chou
    • 4
  • Ching-jang Huang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemical Science and TechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipei10617
  2. 2.Institute of Physiology, College of MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Measurement Science and StandardsNational Research CouncilOttawaCanada
  4. 4.Institute of Fisheries ScienceNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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