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Lipids

, Volume 48, Issue 9, pp 879–888 | Cite as

Fish Oil Decreases C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Improving Nutritional Prognosis and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Colorectal Cancer Patients

  • Michel Carlos MocellinEmail author
  • Juliana de Aguiar Pastore e Silva
  • Carolina de Quadros Camargo
  • Maria Emília de Souza Fabre
  • Scheila Gevaerd
  • Katya Naliwaiko
  • Yara Maria Franco Moreno
  • Everson Araújo Nunes
  • Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes Trindade
Original Article

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (n-3 PUFA) have several anticancer effects, especially attributed to their ability to modulate a variety of genomic and immune responses. In this context, this randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was conducted in order to check whether supplementation of 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks alters the production of inflammatory markers, the plasma fatty acid profile and the nutritional status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Eleven adults with CRC in chemotherapy were randomized into two groups: (a) supplemented (SG) daily with 2 g/day of encapsulated fish oil [providing 600 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] for 9 weeks (n = 6), and (b) control (CG) (n = 5). All outcomes were evaluated on the day before the first chemotherapy session and 9 weeks later. Plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17A, the pro/anti-inflammatory balance (ratio TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL10) and serum albumin, showed no significant changes between times and study groups (p > 0.05). C-reactive protein (CRP) and the CRP/albumin ratio showed opposite behavior in groups, significantly reducing their values in SG (p < 0.05). Plasma proportions of EPA and DHA increased 1.8 and 1.4 times, respectively, while the ARA reduced approximately 0.6 times with the supplementation (9 weeks vs baseline, p < 0.05). Patients from SG gained 1.2 kg (median) while the CG lost −0.5 kg (median) during the 9 weeks of chemotherapy (p = 0.72). These results demonstrate that 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks of chemotherapy improves CRP values, CRP/albumin status, plasma fatty acid profile and potentially prevents weight loss during treatment.

Keywords

Fish oil n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids Colorectal cancer Chemotherapy Cytokines Fatty acid profile 

Abbreviations

ARA

Arachidonic acid

BMI

Body mass index

CG

Control group

COX

Cyclooxygenase

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CRP

C-Reactive protein

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

HPLC

High pressure liquid chromatography

IL

Interleukin

NF-κB

Nuclear factor κB

PG

Prostaglandin

PINI

Prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SC

Santa Catarina

SG

Supplemented group

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TNM

Tumor staging

VB

Visual basic

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the Post-Graduate Program in Nutrition—Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil; the Fellowship Program Social Demand/Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) with a scholarship grant to the senior author; and to the Foundation that Supports Research and Innovation in the State of Santa Catarina (FAPESC) by financing evaluations of inflammatory markers. Thanks also to Phytomare for the donation of the dietary supplements.

Conflict of interest

The authors state that there was no conflict of interests in any step of this study.

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Copyright information

© AOCS 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Carlos Mocellin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juliana de Aguiar Pastore e Silva
    • 2
  • Carolina de Quadros Camargo
    • 1
  • Maria Emília de Souza Fabre
    • 2
  • Scheila Gevaerd
    • 2
  • Katya Naliwaiko
    • 3
  • Yara Maria Franco Moreno
    • 1
  • Everson Araújo Nunes
    • 4
  • Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes Trindade
    • 1
  1. 1.Post-Graduate Program of Nutrition, Department of NutritionFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Ambulatory Care Clinic and Oncologic Research CenterFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyFederal University of ParanáCuritibaBrazil
  4. 4.Post-Graduate Program of Nutrition, Multicenter Program of Post-Graduation in Physiological Sciences, Department of PhysiologyFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

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