Lipids

, Volume 47, Issue 12, pp 1169–1179 | Cite as

Key Lipid Oxidation Products Can Be Used to Predict Sensory Quality of Fish Oils with Different Levels of EPA and DHA

Original Article

Abstract

Despite its many health benefits, many consumers avoid fish oil supplements due to fishy tastes and odors. Common chemical measures of oxidation have little correlation with sensory properties, making it difficult to determine the sensory quality of fish oil without the use of an expensive sensory panel. Here we investigate an alternative method to assess oxidation using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fish oils containing different amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were oxidized, and headspace volatiles were monitored over time and compared to sensory evaluations by a taste panel. Peroxide value and anisidine value were also measured. Sensory panel scores and headspace volatile data were analyzed using principal component analysis and linear regression to identify key volatiles responsible for changes in sensory degradation of oils over time. A total of eight compounds were identified, primarily aldehydes and ketones. By monitoring these volatiles, it may be possible to create a simple method to assess oxidation in fish oils that correlates well with sensory properties of the oil without the use of a sensory panel.

Keywords

Fish oil Oxidation SPME GCMS Sensory Principal component analysis 

Abbreviations

AOCS

American Oil Chemists’ Society

AV

Anisidine value

DAG

Diacylglycerol

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

GOED

Global Organization for EPA and DHA

PV

Peroxide value

MAG

Monoacylglycerol

MANOVA

Multivariate analysis of variance

PC

Principal component

PCA

Principal component analysis

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SPME

Solid phase microextraction

TAG

Triacylglycerol

TBME

tert-Butyl methyl ether

References

  1. 1.
    Global Organization for EPA and DHA (2008) Voluntary monograph for omega-3. http://www.goedomega3.com/. Accessed May 2008
  2. 2.
    Frankel EN (2005) Lipid oxidation, 2nd edn. The Oily Press, BridgwaterGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sullivan Ritter JC, Budge SM, St-Onge M (2009) Determining ethyl esters in fish oil using with solid-phase microextraction and GCMS. J Am Oil Chem Soc 86:743–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Firestone D (ed) (1997) Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 4th edn. Method Cd 8-53, American Oil Chemists’ Society, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Firestone D (ed) (1997) Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 4th edn. Method Cd 18-90, American Oil Chemists’ Society, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sullivan Ritter JC, Budge SM (2012) Fish oil sensory properties can be predicted using key oxidative volatiles. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201100330 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Warner K (1995) Sensory evaluation of oils and fat-containing foods. In: Warner K, Eskin NAM (eds) Methods to assess quality and stability of oils and fat-containing foods. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 49–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aitchison J (1983) Principal component analysis of compositional data. Biometrik 70:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Filzmoser P, Hron K, Reimann C (2009) Univariate statistical analysis of environmental (compositional) data: problems and possibilities. Sci Total Environ 407:6100–6108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Filzmoser P, Hron K (2008) Outlier detection for compositional data using robust methods. Math Geosci 40:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    SPSS Inc. (1999) SPSS Base 10.0 for Windows User’s Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Finley JW, Shahidi F (2001) The chemistry, processing, and health benefits of highly unsaturated fatty acids: an overview. In: Shaidi F, Finley JW (eds) Omega-3 fatty acids. American Chemical Society, Washington, pp 2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sullivan Ritter JC, Budge SM, St-Onge M (2011) Modeling the primary oxidation in commercial fish oil preparations. Lipids 46:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang T, Jiang Y, Hammond EG (2005) Effect of randomization on the oxidative stability of corn oil. JAOCS 82:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kristensen JB, Nielsen NS, Jacobsen C, Mu H (2006) Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 108:336–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hartvigsen K, Lund P, Hansen KF, Hølmer G (2000) Dynamic headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of volatiles produced in fish oil-enriched mayonnaise during storage. J Agric Food Chem 48:4858–4867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Macfarlane N, Salt J, Birkin R (2001) The FAST Index-a fishy scale. Inform 12:244–249Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jacobsen C, Hartvigsen K, Lund P, Adler-Nissen J, Holmer G, Meyer AS (2000) Oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise. Eur Food Res Technol 210:242–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Venkateshwarlu G, Let MB, Meyer AS, Jacobsen C (2004) Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavour compounds in a fish oil-enriched milk emulsion. J Agric Food Chem 52:311–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karahadian C, Lindsay RC (1989) Evaluation of compounds contributing characterizing fishy flavours in fish oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66:953–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Medina I, Satué-Gracia MT, Frankel EN (1999) Static headspace gas chromatographic analyses to determine oxidation of fish muscle lipids during thermal processing. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Min DB, Boff JM (2002) Lipid oxidation of edible oils. In: Akoh CC, Min DB (eds) Food lipids: chemistry, nutrition and biochemistry, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 335–364Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chung H, Choi A, Cho IH, Kim YS (2011) Changes in fatty acids and volatile components in mackerel by broiling. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 112:1481–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roh HS, Park JY, Park SY, Chun BS (2006) Isolation of off-flavors and odors from tuna fish oil using supercritical carbon dioxide. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 11:492–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guillén MD, Carton I, Salmeron J, Casas C (2009) Headspace composition of cod liver oil and its evolution in storage after opening. First evidence of the presence of toxic aldehydes. Food Chem 114:1291–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Giogios I, Grigorakis K, Nengas I, Papasolomontos S, Papaioannoub N, Alexis MN (2009) Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of selected marine oils and meals. J Sci Food Agric 89:88–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomkins C, Perkins EG (1999) The evaluation of frying oils with the p-anisidine value. JAOCS 76:945–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Process Engineering and Applied ScienceDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations