, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 643–646 | Cite as

Oral Supplementation with Dihomo-γ-Linolenic Acid (DGLA)-Enriched Oil Increases Serum DGLA Content in Healthy Adults

  • Takao Tanaka
  • Saki Kakutani
  • Chika Horikawa
  • Hiroshi KawashimaEmail author
  • Yoshinobu Kiso


Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) is one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, and is expected to show anti-allergic activity. We examined the effects of supplementation with DGLA-enriched oil (450 mg as free DGLA) for 4 weeks in healthy adults in a randomized controlled study. The DGLA composition in the total fatty acids of serum phospholipids increased from 2.0 to 3.4 %, and returned to the initial level after a 4-week washout. No side effects or changes in blood biochemical parameters were observed. These results indicate that serum DGLA content can be safely increased by supplementation with 450 mg DGLA under these conditions.


Polyunsaturated fatty acid Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid DGLA Atopic dermatitis Human 



Atopic dermatitis


Arachidonic acid


Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid

DGLA oil

DGLA-enriched triglyceride


Docosahexaenoic acid


γ-Linolenic acid


  1. 1.
    Dooper MM, Wassink L, M’Rabet L, Graus YM (2002) The modulatory effects of prostaglandin-E on cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells are independent of the prostaglandin subtype. Immunology 107:152–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Iversen L, Fogh K, Kragballev K (1992) Effect of dihomogammalinolenic acid and its 15-lipoxygenase metabolite on eicosanoid metabolism by human mononuclear leukocytes in vitro: selective inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. Dermatol Res 284:222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kawashima H, Akimoto K, Higashiyama K, Fujikawa S, Shimizu S (2000) Industrial production of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid by a Δ5 desaturase-defective mutant of Mortierella alpina 1S–4 fungus. J Am Oil Chem Soc 77:1135–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kawashima H, Tateishi N, Shiraishi A, Teraoka N, Tanaka T, Tanaka A, Matsuda H, Kiso Y (2008) Oral administration of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid prevents development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Lipids 43:37–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Manku MS, Horrobin DF, Morse N, Kyte V, Jenkins K (1982) Reduced levels of prostaglandin precursors in the blood of atopic patients: defective delta-6-desaturase function as a biochemical basis for atopy. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 9:615–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takai S, Jin D, Kawashima H, Kimura M, Shiraishi-Tateishi A, Tanaka T, Kakutani S, Tanaka K, Kiso Y, Miyazaki M (2009) Anti-atherosclerotic effects of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid in apoE-deficient mice. J Atheroscler Thromb 16:480–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Teraoka N, Kawashima H, Shiraishi-Tateishi A, Tanaka T, Nakamura J, Kakutani S, Kiso Y (2009) Oral supplementation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA)-enriched oil alters serum fatty acids in healthy men. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:1453–1455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sakuradani E, Kobayashi M, Shimizu S (1999) Δ9 -Fatty acid desaturase from arachidonic acid-producing fungus: a unique gene sequence and its heterologous expression in a fungus, Aspergillus. Eur J Biochem 260:208–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Folch J, Lees M, Stanley GHS (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226:497–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Henz BM, Jablonska S, van de Kerkhof PC, Stingl G, Blaszczyk M, Vandervalk PG, Veenhuizen R, Muggli R, Raederstorff D (1999) Double-blind, multicentre analysis of the efficacy of borage oil in patients with atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 140:685–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schalin-Karrila M, Mattila L, Jansen CT, Uotila P (1987) Evening primrose oil in the treatment of atopic eczema: effect on clinical status, plasma phospholipid fatty acids and circulating blood prostaglandins. Br J Dermatol 117:11–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hederos CA, Berg A (1996) Epogam evening primrose oil treatment in atopic dermatitis and asthma. Arch Dis Child 75:494–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takao Tanaka
    • 1
  • Saki Kakutani
    • 1
  • Chika Horikawa
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Kawashima
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoshinobu Kiso
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Ltd.ShimamotoJapan

Personalised recommendations