Lipids

, Volume 45, Issue 9, pp 765–775 | Cite as

A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

  • Zhiying Zhang
  • Elaine Lanza
  • Penny M. Kris-Etherton
  • Nancy H. Colburn
  • Deborah Bagshaw
  • Michael J. Rovine
  • Jan S. Ulbrecht
  • Gerd Bobe
  • Robert S. Chapkin
  • Terryl J. Hartman
Original Article

Abstract

Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P < 0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P < 0.001), LDL-C (P < 0.01), TC/HDL-C (P < 0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors.

Keywords

Legume intake Lipids Insulin resistance 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

apo A-I

Apolipoprotein A-I

apo B

Apolipoprotein B

AIC

Akaike Information Criteria

BIC

Bayesian Information Criteria

BMI

Body mass index

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

CV

Coefficients of variations

DGA

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

GCRC

General clinical research center

GI

Glycemic index

GL

Glycemic load

HA

Healthy American diet

HDL-C

High density lipoprotein cholesterol

HOMA-IR

Homeostasis model assessment index

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IR

Insulin-resistant

IS

Insulin-sensitive

LDL-C

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol

LDL-C/HDL-C

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio

LG

Legume diet

LIFE

Legume inflammation feeding experiment

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

NDS-R

Nutrition data system for research

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

sd-LDL

Small dense LDL-C particle

TC

Total cholesterol

TC/HDL-C

Total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio

TAG

Triglyceride

TAG/HDL-C

Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio

VLDL

Very low density lipoprotein

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Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhiying Zhang
    • 1
  • Elaine Lanza
    • 4
  • Penny M. Kris-Etherton
    • 1
  • Nancy H. Colburn
    • 4
  • Deborah Bagshaw
    • 1
  • Michael J. Rovine
    • 2
  • Jan S. Ulbrecht
    • 3
  • Gerd Bobe
    • 4
  • Robert S. Chapkin
    • 5
  • Terryl J. Hartman
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Nutritional SciencesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Human Develop and Family StudiesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biobehavioral Health and MedicineThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  4. 4.Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, Center for Cancer ResearchThe National Cancer InstituteBethesda and FrederickUSA
  5. 5.Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex DiseasesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  6. 6.110 Chandlee Laboratory, The Department of Nutritional SciencesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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