, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 619–625 | Cite as

Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein is Associated with Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein in Subjects with Different Levels of Cardiovascular Risk

  • Ana Paula de Queiroz Mello
  • Isis Tande da Silva
  • Aline Silva Oliveira
  • Valéria Sutti Nunes
  • Dulcineia Saes Parra Abdalla
  • Magnus Gidlund
  • Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
Original Article


Dyslipidemias and physicochemical changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are very important factors for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, pathophysiological properties of electronegative low-density lipoprotein [LDL(−)] remain a controversial issue. Our objective was to investigate LDL(−) content in LDL and its subfractions (phenotypes A and B) of subjects with different cardiovascular risk. Seventy-three subjects were randomized into three groups: normolipidemic (N; n = 30) and hypercholesterolemic (HC; n = 33) subjects and patients with CAD (n = 10). After fasting, blood samples were collected and total, dense and light LDL were isolated. LDL(−) content in total LDL and its subfractions was determined by ELISA. LDL(−) content in total LDL was lower in the N group as compared to the HC (P < 0.001) and CAD (P = 0.006) groups. In the total sample and in those of the N, HC, and CAD groups, LDL(−) content in dense LDL was higher than in light LDL (P = 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.033, respectively) The impact of LDL(−) on cardiovascular risk was reinforced when LDL(−) content in LDL showed itself to have a positive association with total cholesterol (β = 0.003; P < 0.001), LDL-C (β = 0.003; p < 0.001), and non-HDL-C (β = 0.003; P < 0.001) and a negative association with HDL-C (β = −0.32; P = 0.04). Therefore, LDL(−) is an important biomarker that showed association with the lipid profile and the level of cardiovascular risk.


Oxidation Electronegative low-density lipoprotein LDL phenotype B Atherosclerosis 



Body mass index


Coronary artery disease


Cardiovascular heart diseases


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay




High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Low-density lipoprotein


Electronegative low-density lipoprotein


Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase


Total cholesterol





The present study was financially supported by grants from FAPESP (#04/11792-6). The authors acknowledge Dr Paulo Boschcov, former professor at UNIFESP, for his revision of the final version of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© AOCS 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Paula de Queiroz Mello
    • 1
  • Isis Tande da Silva
    • 1
  • Aline Silva Oliveira
    • 1
  • Valéria Sutti Nunes
    • 2
  • Dulcineia Saes Parra Abdalla
    • 3
  • Magnus Gidlund
    • 4
  • Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Faculdade de Saúde PúblicaUniversity of Sao PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Lipids Laboratory (LIM 10), School of MedicineUniversity of Sao PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Sao PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Sao PauloSão PauloBrazil

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