Lipids

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 63–71 | Cite as

The Spectrum of Plant and Animal Sterols in Different Oil-Derived Intravenous Emulsions

  • Maria Luisa Forchielli
  • Germana Bersani
  • Sara Tala
  • Gabriele Grossi
  • Cristina Puggioli
  • Massimo Masi
Original Article

Abstract

Intravenous lipid constituents have different effects on various biological processes. Some of these effects are protective, while others are potentially adverse. Phytosterols, in particular, seem to be implicated with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of plant and animal sterols present in lipid formulations derived from different oil sources. To this end, animal (cholesterol) and plant (β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol) sterols in seven different commercially available intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) were quantified by capillary gas chromatography after performing a lipid extraction procedure. The two major constituents of the lipid emulsions were cholesterol (range 14–57% of total lipids) and β-sitosterol (range 24–55%), followed by campesterol (range 8–18%) and stigmasterol (range 5–16%). The fish oil-derived formulation was an exception, as it contained only cholesterol. The mean values of the different sterols were statistically different across ILEs (P = 0.0000). A large percentage of pairwise comparisons were also statistically significant (P = 0.000), most notably for cholesterol and stigmasterol (14 out of 21 for both), followed by campesterol (12 out 21) and β-sitosterol (11 out 21). In conclusion, most ILEs combined significant amounts of phytosterols and cholesterol. However, their phytosterols:cholesterol ratios were reversed compared to the normal human diet.

Keywords

Phytosterols Cholesterol Intravenous lipid emulsions Cholestasis Gas chromatography 

Abbreviations

ILEs

Intravenous lipid emulsions

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition

PNAC

Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis

LCT

Long-chain triglycerides

MCT

Medium-chain triglycerides

GC

Gas chromatography

cGC

Capillary gas chromatography

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are particularly grateful to Dr. Maria Rodriguez Estrada and Mr Stefano Savioli at the Food Science Department directed by Prof. Lerker, University of Bologna, for their expertise and technical assistance offered for accurate laboratory determinations.

References

  1. 1.
    Bindl L, Lütjohann D, Buderus S, Lentze MJ, Bergmann KV (2000) High plasma levels of phytosterols in patients on parenteral nutrition: a marker of liver dysfunction. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 31:313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Llop JM, Virgili N, Moreno-Villares JM et al (2008) Phytosterolemia in parenteral nutrition patients: implications for liver disease development. Nutrition 24:1145–1152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clayton PT, Bowron A, Mills KA et al (1993) Phytosterolemia in children with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestatic liver disease. Gastroenterology 105:1806–1813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Iyer KR, Clayton P (1998) New insight into mechanisms of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis: role of plant sterols. J Pediatr Surg 33:1–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lascala GC, Le Coultre C, Roche BG et al (1993) The addition of lipids increases the TPN-associated cholestasis in the rat. Eur J Pediatr Surg 3:224–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boselli E, Velazco V, Caboni MF, Lercker G (2001) Pressurized liquid extraction of lipids for the determination of oxysterols in egg-containing food. J Chromatogr 917:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226:497–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sander BD, Addis PB, Park SW, Smith DE (1989) Quantification of cholesterol oxidation products in a variety of foods. J Food Protect 52:109–114Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sweeley CC, Bentley R, Makita M, Wells WW (1963) Gas–liquid chromatography of trimethylsilyl derivatives of sugars and related substances. J Am Chem Soc 85:2497–2507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ellegard L, Sunesson A, Bosaeus I (2005) Higher serum phytosterol levels in short bowel patients on parenteral nutrition support. Clin Nutr 24:415–420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saubion JL, Hazane C, Jalabert M (1998) The role of sterols in lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 14:477–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferrari RA, Esteves W, Mukherjee KD, Schulte E (1997) Alteration of sterol and sterol esters in vegetable oils during industrial refining. J Agric Food Chem 45:4753–4757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pironi L, Guidetti MC, Zolezzi C, Fasani C, Bersani G et al (2003) Peroxidation potential of lipid emulsions after compounding in All-In-One solutions. Nutrition 19:784–788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Plat J, Brzezinka H, Lütjohann D, Mensink RP, von Bergmann K (2001) Oxidized plant sterols in human serum and lipid infusions as measured by combined gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res 42:2030–2038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carter BA, Taylor OA, Prendergast DR et al (2007) Stigmasterol, a so lipid-derived phytosterol, is an antagonist of the bile acid nuclear receptor FXR. Pediatr Res 62:301–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berge KE, von Bergmann K, Lutjohann D et al (2002) Heritability of plasma noncholesterol sterols and relationship to DNA sequence polymorphism in ABCG5 and ABCG8. J Lipid Res 43:486–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salen G, Ahrens EH, Grundy SM (1970) Metabolism of β-sitosterol in men. J Clin Invest 49:952–967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Forchielli ML, Richardson D, Gura K, Folkman J, Lo CW (2008) Better living through chemistry, constant monitoring, and prompt interventions: 26 years on home parenteral nutrition without major complications. Nutrition 24:103–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alwayn IP, Gura K, Nose V et al (2005) Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Pediatr Res 57:445–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gura KM, Lee S, Valim C et al (2008) Safety and efficacy of a fish-oil-based fat emulsion in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. Pediatrics 121:678–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Luisa Forchielli
    • 1
  • Germana Bersani
    • 2
  • Sara Tala
    • 3
  • Gabriele Grossi
    • 3
  • Cristina Puggioli
    • 2
  • Massimo Masi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, S Orsola-MalpighiMedical School of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy, S Orsola-MalpighiMedical School of BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, S Orsola-MalpighiMedical School of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations