Lipids

, Volume 44, Issue 9, pp 787–797

Tocotrienols Suppress Proinflammatory Markers and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in RAW264.7 Macrophages

  • Mun-Li Yam
  • Sitti Rahma Abdul Hafid
  • Hwee-Ming Cheng
  • Kalanithi Nesaretnam
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11745-009-3326-2

Cite this article as:
Yam, ML., Abdul Hafid, S.R., Cheng, HM. et al. Lipids (2009) 44: 787. doi:10.1007/s11745-009-3326-2

Abstract

Tocotrienols are powerful chain breaking antioxidant. Moreover, they are now known to exhibit various non-antioxidant properties such as anti-cancer, neuroprotective and hypocholesterolemic functions. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and individual tocotrienol isoforms namely δ-, γ-, and α-tocotrienol on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The widely studied vitamin E form, α-tocopherol, was used as comparison. Stimulation of RAW264.7 with lipopolysaccharide induced the release of various inflammatory markers. 10 μg/ml of TRF and all tocotrienol isoforms significantly inhibited the production of interleukin-6 and nitric oxide. However, only α-tocotrienol demonstrated a significant effect in lowering tumor necrosis factor-α production. Besides, TRF and all tocotrienol isoforms except γ-tocotrienol reduced prostaglandin E2 release. It was accompanied by the down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression by all vitamin E forms except α-tocopherol. Collectively, the data suggested that tocotrienols are better anti-inflammatory agents than α-tocopherol and the most effective form is δ-tocotrienol.

Keywords

Tocotrienols α-Tocopherol Inflammation RAW264.7 Cyclooxygenase-2 Vitamin E 

Abbreviations

COX-1

Cyclooxygenase-1

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

IL-6

Interleukin-6

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

NO

Nitric oxide

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

TNF- α

Tumor necrosis factor

TRF

Tocotrienol-rich fraction

αT

Alpha-tocopherol

αT3

Alpha-tocotrienol

γT3

Gamma-tocotrienol

δT3

Delta-tocotrienol

Copyright information

© AOCS 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mun-Li Yam
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sitti Rahma Abdul Hafid
    • 1
  • Hwee-Ming Cheng
    • 2
  • Kalanithi Nesaretnam
    • 1
  1. 1.Malaysian Palm Oil BoardKajangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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