Lipids

, 44:273 | Cite as

Phytosterol Intake and Dietary Fat Reduction are Independent and Additive in their Ability to Reduce Plasma LDL Cholesterol

  • Shirley C. Chen
  • Joseph T. Judd
  • Matthew Kramer
  • Gert W. Meijer
  • Beverly A. Clevidence
  • David J. Baer
Original Article

Abstract

We studied the interrelationship of diet and plant sterols (PS) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and carotenoids. Mildly hypercholesterolemic men (n = 13) and postmenopausal women (n = 9) underwent four randomized, crossover, double-blind, controlled feeding periods of 23 days each. The design consisted of two levels of PS (0 and 3.3 g/day) and two background diets having fat content either typical of the American diet (total and saturated fat at 33.5 and 13.2% of energy, respectively), or a Step 1 type of diet (total and saturated fat at 26.4 and 7.7% of energy, respectively). Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, Apo A1 and Apo B were 4.3, 5.3, 4.5, 2.8 and 2.5% lower, respectively (≤ 0.0001; <0.0001, 0.0016, 0.0006, and 0.0069), with the Step 1 diet than with the typical American diet. Diet had no effect on TC/HDL cholesterol (= 0.1062). Plant sterol intake lowered TC, LDL cholesterol, and Apo B by 9.0, 12.4 and 6.1% and TC/HDLC by 9.6% (P ≤ 0.0001 for all), respectively, without affecting HDL cholesterol and Apo A1 (P = 0.2831 and 0.732). The PS effect in lowering plasma TC and LDL cholesterol was independent of and additive to the effect due to dietary fat reduction. Responses of plasma carotenoids to PS intake were consistent with the literature.

Keywords

Plant sterols LDL cholesterol Typical American diet Step 1 diet 

Abbreviations

Apo A1

Apolipoprotein A1

Apo B

Apolipoprotein B

BHNRC

Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center

HDL

High density lipoprotein

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HRT

Hormone-replacement therapy

LDL

Low density lipoprotein

NCEP

National Cholesterol Education Program

PS

Plant sterols

SEM

Standard error of the mean

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

TAD

Typical American Diet

TC

Total cholesterol

TAG

Triacylglycerides

USDA

US Department of Agriculture

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Copyright information

© AOCS 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley C. Chen
    • 1
  • Joseph T. Judd
    • 1
  • Matthew Kramer
    • 2
  • Gert W. Meijer
    • 3
  • Beverly A. Clevidence
    • 1
  • David J. Baer
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Components and Health LaboratoryBeltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA, ARSBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Biometrical Consulting Service, Agricultural Research ServiceUS Department of AgricultureBeltsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Unilever Research and Development FoodsVlaardingenThe Netherlands

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