Vitamin E Transfer from Lipid Emulsions to Plasma Lipoproteins: Mediation by Multiple Mechanisms
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The present study determined alpha-tocopherol mass transfer from an alpha-tocopherol-rich emulsion to LDL and HDL, and assessed the potential of different mechanisms to modulate alpha-tocopherol transfers. Emulsion particles rich in alpha-tocopherol were incubated in vitro with physiological concentrations of LDL or HDL. The influence of plasma proteins was assessed by adding human lipoprotein poor plasma (LPP) fraction with intact vs heat inactivated PLTP, or with a specific cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, or by adding purified PLTP or pig LPP which lacks CETP activity. After 4 h incubation in absence of LPP, alpha-tocopherol content was increased by ~80% in LDL and ~160% in HDL. Addition of LPP markedly enhanced alpha-tocopherol transfer leading to 350–400% enrichment in LDL or HDL at 4 h. Higher (~10 fold) enrichment was achieved after 20 h incubation with LPP. Facilitation of alpha-tocopherol transfer was (i) more than 50% higher with human vs pig LPP (despite similar PLTP phospholipid transfer activity), (ii) reduced by specific CETP activity inhibition, (iii) not fully suppressed by heat inactivation, and (iv) not restored by purified PLTP. In conclusion, alpha-tocopherol content in LDL and HDL can be markedly raised by rapid transfer from an alpha-tocopherol-rich emulsion. Our results indicate that alpha-tocopherol mass transfer between emulsion particles and lipoproteins is mediated by more than one single mechanism and that this transfer may be facilitated not only by PLTP but likely also by other plasma proteins such as CETP.
KeywordsVitamin E Alpha-tocopherol mass transfer Lipid emulsions LDL HDL PLTP CETP
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein
High density lipoproteins
Low density lipoproteins
Lipoprotein poor plasma
Phospholipid transfer protein
M. Hacquebard is recipient of a fellowship from the Danone Institute, Belgium. Prof. R.J. Deckelbaum receives support from NIH grant #HL40404. The authors gratefully thank Dr. E. Niesor and Dr. C. Maugeais (F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland) for kindly providing CETP inhibitor and related information.
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