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Lipids

, Volume 41, Issue 11, pp 967–992 | Cite as

Dietary trans fatty acids: Review of recent human studies and food industry responses

  • J. Edward Hunter
Review

Abstract

Dietary trans FA at sufficiently high levels have been found to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and decrease high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (and thus to increase the ratio of LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol) compared with diets high in cis monounsaturated FA or PUFA. The dietary levels of trans FA at which these effects are easily measured are around 4% of energy or higher to increase LDL-cholesterol and around 5 to 6% of energy or higher to decrease HDL-cholesterol, compared with essentially trans-free control diets. Very limited data at lower levels of intake (less than 4% of energy) are available. Most health professional organizations and some govemments now recommend reduced consumption of foods containing trans FA, and effective January 1, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires the labeling of the amounts of trans FA fer serving in packaged foods. In response, the food industry is working on ways to eliminate or greatly reduce trans FA in food products. Current efforts focus on four technological options: (i) modification of the hydrogenation process, (ii) use of interesterification, (iii) use of fractions high in solids from natural oils, and (iv) use of trait-enhanced oils. Challenges to the food industry in replacing trans FA in foods are to develop formulation options that provide equivalent functionality, are economically feasible, and do not greatly increase saturated FA content.

Keywords

Linoleic Acid Trans Fatty Acid Vaccenic Acid Dietary Trans Fatty Acid Positional Fatty Acid Isomer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AHA

American Heart Association

AMD

age-related macular degeneration

apoB-100

apolipoprotein B-100

CHD

coronary heart disease

CRP

C-reactive protein

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

FASEB

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

EFA

essential fatty acids

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid

FDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FFA

free fatty acids

FMD

flow-mediated vasodilation

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

IL

interleukin

IOM

Institute of Medicine (of the National Academy of Sciences)

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

Lp(a)

lipoprotein(a)

sTNF-R1 and-R2

soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptors 1 and 2

USB

United Soybean Board

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

WHO/FAO

World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization (of the United Nations)

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© AOCS Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CincinatiCincinnati

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