n−3 long-chain FA decrease serum levels of TG and remnant-like particle-cholesterol in humans
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A large number of papers have reported that administration of n−3 FA reduced serum TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic patients. However, few studies have examined the effect of n−3 FA on serum concentrations of remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol. Volunteers (n=41) whose serum TG concentrations were 100–300 mg/dL were recruited and randomly assigned to either an n−3 FA group or a control group with stratification by sex, age, and serum TG level in a double-blind manner. The subjects in the n−3 FA group were administered 125 ml of fermented soybean milk with fish oil containing 600 mg of EPA and 260 mg of DHA/d for 12 wk. The controls consumed control soybean milk with olive oil. Fasting blood samples were obtained before the start of administration and at 4, 8 and 12 wk. EPA concentrations in red blood cells increased significantly in all but one subject in the n−3 FA group, with no significant changes in the control group. TG levels decreased more in the n−3 FA group than in the control group at weeks 4 (P<0.05), 8 (P<0.01), and 12 (P<0.05) with their baseline as covariate. RLP cholesterol levels decreased more in the n−3 FA group than in the control at weeks 8 (P<0.01) and 12 (P<0.05) with their baseline as covariate. The groups did not differ in the other lipid levels. It is likely that n−3 long-chain FA may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects by lowering serum TG and RLP-cholesterol levels even at the dose of 860 mg/d.
red blood cells
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