, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 73–78

Removal of fat from Cow's milk decreases the vitamin E contents of the resulting dairy products

  • Supriya Kaushik
  • Rosemary Wander
  • Scott Leonard
  • Bruce German
  • Maret G. Traber


The present study was undertaken to determine whether decreases in fat contents result in lower vitamin E contents. Milk samples of varying fat contents (half and half, whole milk, reduced-fat milk low-fat milk, and nonfat milk) were obtained from a local dairy on six different occasions, α-locopherol was the major form of vitamin E (>85%); γ-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol were present to a lesser extent. As the fat contents of milk products decreased from 11 to 0.3%, the vitamin E contents decreased. For example, raw milk as compared to nonfat milk had both higher α-tocopherol contents (45.5+-4.6 vs. 4.5±0.5 μg/100 g; P<-0.0001) and higher total lipids ( 3.46±0.49 vs. 0.30±0.07 g/100 g; P≤0.0001). Vitamin E, cholesterol, and total lipids increased as cream was added back to nonfat milk during production. For every 1 mg cholesterol increase, there was an increase of approximately 4 μg of α-tocopherol; for every 1 g total lipids increase, the α-tocopherol content increased by 17 μg. These data demonstrate that removal of milk fat markedly decreases the vitamin E content of various milk products



Food and Drug Administration


high-performance liquid chromatogrpahy


myocardial infarction


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Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Supriya Kaushik
    • 1
  • Rosemary Wander
    • 2
  • Scott Leonard
    • 5
  • Bruce German
    • 3
  • Maret G. Traber
    • 1
    • 5
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food ManagementUniversity of North CarolinaGreensboroNorth Carolina
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition and Food Service SystemsUniversity of North CarolinaGreensboroNorth Carolina
  3. 3.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavis
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of California School of Medicine, DavisSacramentoCalifornia
  5. 5.Linus Pauling InstituteOregon State UniversityCorvallis

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