Production Engineering

, Volume 7, Issue 6, pp 601–610 | Cite as

Friction analysis of thermally sprayed coatings finished by ball burnishing and grinding

  • A. E. Tekkaya
  • M. Kleiner
  • D. Biermann
  • L. HiegemannEmail author
  • S. RauschEmail author
  • V. Franzen
  • L. Kwiatkowski
  • P. Kersting
Production Process


Thermally sprayed coatings offer a promising approach as efficient method to increase the wear-resistance of sheet metal forming tools. However, the roughness of thermally sprayed surfaces is quite high. The use of these coatings for deep drawing tools results in poor sheet surface qualities and low drawing ratios. Because it is suspected that high friction is the reason for the low drawability, hard metal coatings (WC–12Co), deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel flame-spraying, were machined by grinding and ball burnishing to improve their friction behavior and the accuracy of the tool shape. The investigation was conducted by plane strip drawing tests. Strips of high strength steel were mated with these novel and effective coatings at different normal contact pressures and drawing velocities. Uncoated friction elements made of C60 steel were considered as reference during the analysis. The results revealed that coated but unmachined friction elements showed high friction values, which led to scratch marks on the sheet surface after drawing. Applying the finishing processes, the friction coefficient could be reduced significantly. Additionally, deep drawing tests were carried out to determine the drawing ratio for coated, unmachined as well as for processed, coated dies. Thermally sprayed and ball burnished as well as thermally sprayed and ground coatings are feasible for deep drawing. Due to the post treatment, the drawing ratio β = 1.8 was increased to 2.0. This is consistent to the results of the friction tests.


Hard material coating Ball burnishing Grinding Friction Strip drawing Deep drawing tools 



This work within the scope of subprojects A3 and A5 of the Collaborative Research Center (SFB708) “3D-Surface Engineering of Tools for Sheet Metal Forming—Manufacturing, Modeling, Machining” is kindly supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG), the central public funding organization for academic research in Germany. The authors would also like to thank Peter Hollingsworth from the Chair of Materials Engineering of TU Dortmund University, Germany, for preparing the thermally sprayed coatings.


  1. 1.
    Kleiner M, Geiger M, Klaus A (2003) Manufacturing of lightweight components by metal forming. Ann CIRP 52(2):521–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Doege E, Dröder K (1997) Einsatz von keramik als werkzeugwerkstoff in der blechumformung. Umformen Hochfester Stähle, Bänder Bleche Rohre 38(12):16–21Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tillmann W, Vogli E, Baumann I, Krebs B, Nebel J (2010) Wear-protective cermet coatings for forming tools. Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 41(7):597–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Doege E, Behrens BA (2007) Handbuch umformtechnik. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vollertsen F, Hu Z (2008) Determination of size-dependent friction functions in sheet metal forming with respect to the distribution of the contact pressure. Prod Eng Res Dev 2(4):345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wagner S (1996) 3D-Beschreibung der oberflächenstrukturen von feinblechen. Dissertation TU StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emmens WC (1997) Tribology of flat contact. Phd-Thesis University of TwentyGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Emmens WC (1988) The influence of surface roughness on friction. In: proceedings of the 15th IDDRG congress. Dearborn, MI, USA, pp 63–70Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wanheim T, Bay N, Petersen AS (1974) A theoretically determined model for friction in metal working processes. Wear 28:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Franzen V, Witulski J, Brosius A, Trompeter M, Tekkaya AE (2011) Thermally sprayed coatings as effective tool surfaces in sheet metal forming applications. J Therm Spray Technol 20(4):939–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Edinger M (1997) Untersuchung zur spanenden endbearbeitung und zum funktionsverhalten von thermisch gespritzten verschleißschutzschichten. Dissertation Universität KaiserslauternGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Packeisen A (2000) Material aspects of grinding wear resistant alloys. Fortschr-Ber VDI Reihe 5/610Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rausch S, Biermann D (2012) Grinding of hard-material-coated forming tools on machining centers. In: Proceedings of the 5th CIRP int conf on high performance cutting, pp 388–392Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Massad RB (1985) Thermal spray coatings—superabrasives for ease of finishing. In: Superabrasives’85. In: Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by Diamond Wheel Manuf Inst, Ind Diamond Ass of Amer and SME, pp 6–14Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Klocke F, Linke B (2008) Mechanisms in the generation of grinding wheel topography by dressing. Prod Eng Res Dev 2(2):157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang B, Liu X, Brown CA, Bergstrom TS (2002) Microgrinding of nanostructured material coatings. Ann CIRP 51(1):251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Denkena B, Köhler J, Kästner J (2012) Chip formation in grinding: an experimental study. In: proceedings of Eng Res Devel 6(2):107–115Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murthy JKN, Rao DS, Venkataraman B (2001) Effect of grinding on the erosion behavior of a WC-Co-Cr coating deposited by HVOF and detonation gun spray processes. Wear 249(7):592–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Biermann D, Mohn T, Blum H, Kleemann H (2010) Grinding of arc-sprayed tungsten carbide coatings on machining centers. Process configuration and simulation. Key Eng Mater 438:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lange K (1990) Lehrbuch der umformtechnik band 3: blechbearbeitung. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Steinhoff K, Rasp W, Pawelski O (1996) Development of deterministic-stochastic surface structures to improve the tribological conditions of sheet forming processes. J Mat Proc Tech 60:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pettersson U, Jacobson S (2004) Friction and wear properties of micro textured DLC coated surfaces in boundary lubricated sliding. Tribol Lett 17(3):553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. E. Tekkaya
    • 1
  • M. Kleiner
    • 1
  • D. Biermann
    • 2
  • L. Hiegemann
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Rausch
    • 2
    Email author
  • V. Franzen
    • 1
  • L. Kwiatkowski
    • 1
  • P. Kersting
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight ConstructionTU Dortmund UniversityDortmundGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Machining TechnologyTU Dortmund UniversityDortmundGermany

Personalised recommendations