Production Engineering

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 123–129 | Cite as

Functionalisation of PM components by integration of inherent data carriers and sensory elements

  • B.-A. Behrens
  • N. VahedEmail author
  • M. KammlerEmail author
Production Process


Apart from a great variety of shaping possibilities powder metallurgical techniques offer integration of foreign elements for permanent and variable data storage or embedding of elements with sensory features in structural parts. By integrating foreign elements as single parts arranged in matrices or traces of foreign powders information like brand, serial numbers or other codable data can be stored in a part. Integrated sensor elements can be used to monitor loading conditions like strains and stresses or temperatures during the life-cycle of technical parts. In this research work foreign elements are embedded in the powder prior to compaction. The powder is compacted to a green body and sintered afterwards. During compaction the foreign elements interact with the base material and change their position according to the deformation of the surrounding powder. Finite element analyses are carried out in order to detect a suitable initial arrangement of foreign elements and to ensure their correct position at the end of the compaction. Furthermore, the interface conditions between the base powder and the foreign elements are of interest. Therefore, experimental investigations are carried out with magneto-elastic sensors consisting of NiFe-layers on different substrates such as aluminum, Silicon and aluminum oxide with aluminum and Steel powder. The bonding quality is analyzed by metallographic investigations. By means of X-ray and computed tomography (CT) the position of the foreign elements within the parts is controlled, which is vital for a correct determination of loading conditions and for the read-out of stored information.


PM components Data storage Sensor Finite element method (FEM) 



The results presented in this paper are obtained within the scope of the Collaborative Research Center 653 “Gentelligent Components in their Lifecycle” in the subproject “Sintering Gentelligent Parts from Metal Powder”. The authors would like to thank the German Research Foundation (DFG) for funding this project. The authors would also like to thank the Institute of Materials Science (IW), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (LUH) for producing the X-ray images shown in this paper.


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Copyright information

© German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Forming Technology and Machines (IFUM)Leibniz Universität HannoverGarbsenGermany

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