Internal and Emergency Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 907–910 | Cite as

The two congested failing giants: heart and liver

  • Piero PortincasaEmail author
Liver disease related to the heart includes acute liver injury due to the heart, i.e., myocardial infarction, sustained arrhythmia resulting in passive congestion of the liver, chronic passive liver congestion, and “cardiac cirrhosis” [ 1]. Causes of congestive heart failure appear in Fig.  1 [ 1]. Congestive heart failure occurs when patients with advanced heart failure experience persistent and severe symptoms interfering with daily life. Advanced congestive heart failure manifests with typical symptoms (Fig.  1) and, by definition, manifestations occur despite maximum evidence-based medical therapy of heart failure, and reversible causes addressed [ 2, 3]. Advanced heart failure has major socio-economic burden; patients experience recurrent hospitalization, and the risk of mortality increases with the frequency of re-hospitalization [ 4, 5]. We reported that addressing an intensive outpatient management program to patients with chronic heart failure has beneficial long-term effects on...


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The authors certify that they have no affiliation or financial involvement in any organization with a direct financial interest in the subject matter discussed in the manuscript.

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All procedures performed in studies discussed in the manuscript were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Medicina Interna (SIMI) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Internal Medicine “Augusto Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human OncologyUniversity of Bari “Aldo Moro’’BariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Clinica Medica “Augusto Murri”University of Bari Medical School, Policlinico HospitalBariItaly

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