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Triggering agents and microbiome as environmental factors on Behçet’s syndrome

  • Gonca Mumcu
  • Haner Direskeneli
IM - REVIEW
  • 10 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Behcet disease

Abstract

Environmental and other triggering factors are suggested to cause the onset and the clinical relapses of Behçet’s syndrome (BS), a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder. In this review, environmental factors are discussed according to their interactions with etiopathogenesis, immune response and disease activity. Stress is a common self-triggering factor for most BS patients. Stimuli such as some foods can activate oral ulcers, and may be linked to the histamine content of the food. Oral/skin trauma and menstruation associated with hormonal factors aggravate, whereas allergy/atopy seem to alleviate the symptoms of BS. Infections are associated with BS, and microbial stimuli can activate inflammation in mucosal surfaces with increased Th1/Th17 responses. Fecal and oral microbiome patterns change in diversity and composition in BS. Better oral hygiene applications and anti-microbial interventions might be helpful to suppress oral ulcers in BS.

Keywords

Triggering agents Environmental factors Microbiome Behçet’s syndrome 

Abbreviations

BS

Behçet’s syndrome

OU

Oral ulcer

SRB

Sulfate-reducing bacteria

BPB

Butyrate-producing bacteria

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Statements of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

None.

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© Società Italiana di Medicina Interna (SIMI) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Management, Faculty of Health SciencesMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, School of MedicineMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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