Internal and Emergency Medicine

, Volume 13, Issue 8, pp 1283–1285 | Cite as

Fluid intake and chronic kidney disease: effect of coaching an increase in fluid intake on kidney function decline

  • Viviana BozzanoEmail author
  • Elena Abati
  • Gruppo di Autoformazione Metodologica (GrAM)


Despite the commonly held view that drinking more water is beneficial to kidney function, little scientific data exist that support this belief. In observational studies, increased water intake is associated with a mortality reduction or with a reduced risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population [1, 2, 3]. In animal models of CKD who underwent nearly complete bilateral nephrectomy, it is observed that an increased water consumption suppresses plasmatic antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentration, reduces levels of copeptin [4] and improves kidney function [5]. However, the effects of hyperhydration on kidney function of human patients with CKD have not yet been elucidated.


Clark et al. conducted a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of coaching to increase water intake on kidney function in adults with CKD. Inclusion criteria were age between 18 years and 80 years, ability to provide informed consent and the will to complete...


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human and animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


  1. 1.
    Clark WF, Sontrop JM, Macnab JJ et al (2011) Urine volume and change in estimated GFR in a community-based cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 6:2634–2641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Strippoli GFM, Craig JC, Rochtchina E et al (2011) Fluid and nutrient intake and risk of chronic kidney disease. Nephrology 16:326–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sontrop JM, Dixon SN, Garg AX et al (2013) Association between water intake, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data. Am J Nephrol 37:434–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sontrop JM, Huang SH, Garg AX et al (2005) Effect of increased water intake on plasma copeptin in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from a pilot randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open 5(11):e008634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark WF, Sontrop JM, Huang SH et al (2016) Hydration and chronic kidney disease progression: a critical review of the evidence. Am J Nephrol 43:281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Medicina Interna 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Specializzazioni Mediche, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Neuroscience Section, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation (DEPT), Dino Ferrari CentreUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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