Hazelnut-enriched chocolate improves flow-mediated artery dilatation via inhibition of oxidative stress
Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and is responsible for 10% of all CVD cases . Cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) causes endothelial dysfunction  through an increase in oxidative stress, with effects on endothelial cell structure and function . In fact, accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress and inflammation provide the pathophysiological link between cigarette smoking and CVD [2, 3, 4, 5]. Oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant defenses, elicits toxic effects on all cellular components, including proteins, lipids, and DNA [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. Increased ROS generation by vascular and inflammatory cells occurs in cardiovascular disease, and there is widespread evidence that oxidative injury contributes to vascular damage and cardiac dysfunction . In line with this, elevated levels of oxidative stress biomarkers have been found in the circulation...
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This article does not contains any study with human participants or animals.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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