Internal and Emergency Medicine

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 76–83 | Cite as

The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: A narrative review

  • A. Squizzato
  • V. E. A. Gerdes
  • W. Ageno
  • H. R. Büller
Review

Abstract

Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the available evidence on the influence of common endocrine disorders on the coagulation system, and their possible clinical implications. We focus on thyroid dysfunction, hyper- and hypocortisolism and growth hormone disturbances, while other endocrine disorders are only briefly discussed. In the published literature a clear bleeding diathesis has only been associated with overt hypothyroidism, mainly mediated by an acquired von Willebrand syndrome. A clinically relevant hypercoagulable state may be present in patients with hyperthyroidism, hypercortisolism or abnormal growth hormone levels, but adequate prospective clinical studies are lacking. Also effects of pheochromocytoma, hyperprolactinaemia and hyperaldosteronism on the coagulation system have been described. It is apparent that unprovoked bleeding and thrombotic episodes can be secondary to endocrine disorders.

Keywords

Coagulation Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism Hypercortisolism Growth hormone Bleeding Thrombosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia Srl 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Squizzato
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. E. A. Gerdes
    • 2
  • W. Ageno
    • 1
  • H. R. Büller
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical MedicineUniversity of InsubriaVareseItaly
  2. 2.Department of Vascular MedicineAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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