Physio-morphological and biochemical responses of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) to split iron nutrition

  • Zeinab Izadi
  • Abdolhossein Rezaei NejadEmail author
  • Javier Abadía
Original Article


The study was aimed to determine the iron (Fe) requirements at different growing stages of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Plants were grown in pots containing equal proportions of sand and perlite, and fertigated with nutrient solution including 4 or 35 µM of the Fe-chelate Fe(III)-EDDHA in each of three different growth stages. Stages were labeled I (from seed germination until 4th to 6th true leaf stage), II (from 4th to 6th true leaf stage until start of flowering) and III (from the start of flowering to flower fading time). Using consistently 4 µM Fe led to chlorotic plants and small and short-lived flowers, whereas using consistently 35 µM Fe led to good quality flowers, considering size, number and lifetime. Results suggest that using 4 µM Fe at growth stages I or III did not result in significant reductions in flower weight and number. Conversely, using 4 µM Fe at stage II led to decreases in flower weight and number. Using 4 µM Fe in two stages could be acceptable only when stages were I and III, although some decreases in number of flowers and number longevity occurred. Results show that it is feasible to reduce the concentration of Fe in the nutrient solution during a considerable part of the plant growth period. Using low Fe in only one growth stage would reduce total Fe inputs by 20–29%, whereas using low Fe in stages I and III would reduce total Fe inputs by 48%. The reduction proposed in the Fe-chelate concentrations would result in diminishing costs for growers and decreasing the environmental impact of Fe fertilization.


Flower production Iron deficiency Pot marigold Split fertilization 



This research was financed by Lorestan University, Iran. JA was partially supported by the Spanish State Research Agency (project AGL2016-75226-R, AEI/FEDER, EU).


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zeinab Izadi
    • 1
  • Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javier Abadía
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureLorestan UniversityKhorramabadIran
  2. 2.Department of Plant NutritionEstación Experimental de Aula Dei (CSIC)ZaragozaSpain

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