v301, a new allele of BRITTLE CULM 12, and its regulation of the early senescence of the leaf blade in rice

  • 28 Accesses


The leaf is the main site for plant photosynthesis and an important component of the maximally efficient plant architecture of rice. Early senescence of leaves affects directly both the yield and the quality of crops. Accordingly, it is very important to explore the mechanism of premature senescence of leaves for rice breeding to promote high photosynthetic efficiency. A mutant v301 with shorter plant height and wider grains increased brittleness in the main veins of leaves, and premature ageing at the leaf tip was obtained by treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Fine gene mapping and identification of candidate genes indicated v301 as a new BC12 allele mutant. Under field planting conditions, there was no significant difference in leaf colour between the wild type (WT) and v301 and before the booting stage, but yellowing and premature senescence appeared subsequently at the leaf tip in v301. Further analysis revealed that the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate in the leaf tip of v301 are significantly lower than those of the WT, while both the content of photosynthetic pigments and the net photosynthetic rate in the leaf base are significantly higher. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in addition to the obvious reduction in gene expression related to chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast development, the expression of ageing retarding genes expression level of OsCatB, OsETR2, OsAkaGal, JARIDIC, OsAPX1 and OsAPX2 was decreased, whereas SGR, OsL85 and OsH36 were significantly increased. At the same time, the gibberellin related genes GA2ox1, GA3ox2 were significantly reduced, and KO2 showed an extremely significant decline in the leaf tip. The contents of WT and v301 gibberellin GA3 were determined by liquid chromatography, and a significant decrease in gibberellin content was found in mutant v301. The activities of SOD, CAT and POD in the senescent leaf tips of v301 are significantly lower than in WT, whereas the activities of H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals are significantly higher. It is suggested that BC12 might affect the premature senescence of leaves via the peroxidation system.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. Achard P, Genschik P (2009) Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how gas shutdown DELLA proteins. J Exp Bot 60:1085–1092

  2. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399

  3. Carmo-Silva E, Andraloic P, Scales J, Driever S, Mead A, Lawson T, Raines C, Parry M (2017) Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield. J Exp Bot 68:3473–3486

  4. Chen L, Maodzeka A, Zhou L, Ali E, Wang Z, Jiang L (2014) Removal of DELLA repression promotes leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Plant Sci 219–220:26–34

  5. Chen LG, Xiang SY, Chen YL, Li DB, Yu DQ (2017) Arabidopsis WRKY45 interacts with the DELLA protein RGL1 to positively regulate age-triggered leaf senescence. Mol Plant 10:1174–1189

  6. Dhindsa RS, Plumb-Dhindsa PL, Ried DM (1982) Leaf senescence and lipid peroxidation: effects of some phytohormones and scavengers of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Physiol Plant 56:453–457

  7. Guo Y, Gan SS (2014) Translational researches on leaf senescence for enhancing plant productivity and quality. J Exp Bot 65:3901–3913

  8. Hong YB, Zhang YX, Sinumporn S, Yu N, Zhan XD, Shen XH, Chen DB, Yu P, Wu WX, Liu QN, Cao ZY, Zhao CD, Cheng SH, Cao LY (2018) Premature leaf senescence 3, encoding a methyltransferase, is required for melatonin biosynthesis in rice. Plant J 95:877–891

  9. Jiang HW, Chen YP, Li M, Xu XL, Wu GJ (2011) Overexpression of SGR results in oxidative stress and lesion-mimic cell death in rice seedlings. J Integr Plant Biol 53:375–387

  10. Jiao YQ, Wang YH, Xue DW, Wang J, Yan MX, Liu GF, Dong GJ, Zeng DL, Lu ZF, Zhu XD, Qian Q, Li JY (2010) Regulation of OsSPL14 by OsmiR156 defines ideal plant architecture in rice. Nat Genet 42:541–544

  11. Khush GS (1995) Breaking the yield frontier of rice. Geosci J 35:329–332

  12. Leshem YY, Wurzburger S, Grossman AA (1981) Cytokinin interaction with free radical metabolism and senescence effects on endogenous lipoxygenase and purine oxidation. Physiol Plant 53:9–12

  13. Li J, Jiang JF, Qian Q, Xu YY, Zhang C, Xiao J, Du C, Luo W, Zou GX, Chen ML, Huang YQ, Feng YQ, Cheng ZK, Yuan M, Chong K (2011) Mutation of rice BC12/GDD1, which encodes a kinesin-like protein that binds to a GA biosynthesis gene promoter, leads to dwarfism with impaired cell elongation. Plant Cell 23:628–640

  14. Li A, Tian YH, Wu K, Ye YF, Yu JP, Zhang JQ, Liu Q, Hu MY, Li H, Tong YP, Fu XD (2018) Modulating plant growth–metabolism Coordination for sustainable agriculture. Nature 560:595–600

  15. Liang CZ, Wang YQ, Zhu YN, Tang JY, Hu B, Liu LC, Ou SJ, Wu HK, Sun XH, Chu JF, Chu CC (2014) OsNAP connects abscisic acid and leaf senescence by fine-tuning abscisic acid biosynthesis and directly targeting senescence-associated genes in rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:10013–10018

  16. Lu ZF, Yu H, Xiong GS, Wang J, Jiao YQ, Liu GF, Jing YH, Meng XB, Hu XM, Qian Q, Fu XD, Wang YH, Li JY (2013) Genome-wide binding analysis of the transcription activator ideal plant architecture1 reveals a complex network regulating rice plant architecture. Plant Cell 25:3743–3759

  17. Luo L, Li WQ, Miura K, Ashikari M, Kyozuka J (2012) Control of tiller growth of rice by OsSPL14 and Strigolactones, which work in two independent pathways. Plant Cell Physiol 53:1793–1801

  18. Mao C, Lu S, Lv B, Zhang B, Shen J, He J, Luo L, Xi D, Chen X, Ming F (2017) A rice NAC transcription factor promotes leaf senescence via ABA biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 174:1747–1763

  19. Michelmore RW, Paran I, Kessili RV (1991) Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88(21):9828–9832

  20. Miura K, Ikeda M, Matsubara A, Song XJ, Ito M, Asano K, Matsuoka M, Kitano H, Ashikari M (2010) OsSPL14 promotes panicle branching and higher grain productivity in rice. Nat Genet 42:545–549

  21. Morita R, Sato Y, Masuda Y, Nishimura M, Kusaba M (2009) Defect in non-yellow coloring 3, an alpha/beta hydrolase-fold family protein, causes a stay-green phenotype during leaf senescence in rice. Plant J 59:940–952

  22. Raines T, Shanks C, Cheng CY, Mcpherson D, Argueso CT, Kim HJ, Franco-Zorrilla JM, Lopez-Vidriero I, Solano R, Vankova R, Schaller GE, Kieber JJ (2016) The cytokinin response factors modulate root and shoot growth and promote leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Plant J 85:134–147

  23. Sakata T, Oda S, Tsunaga Y, Shomura H, Kawagishi-Kobayashi M, Aya K, Saeki K, Endo T, Nagano K, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Watanabe M, Higashitani A (2014) Reduction of gibberellin by low temperature disrupts pollen development in rice. Plant Physiol 164:2011–2019

  24. Sato Y, Morita R, Katsuma S, Nishimura M, Tanaka A, Kusaba M (2008) Two short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases, NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 and NYC1-LIKE, are required for chlorophyll b and light-harvesting complex II degradation during senescence in rice. Plant J 57:120–131

  25. Virk PS, Khush GS, Peng S (2004) Breeding to enhance yield potential of rice at IRRI: the ideotype approach. Int Rice Res Notes 29:S1–S9

  26. Wang Z, Wang Y, Hong X, Hu DH, Liu CX, Yang J, Li HYQ, Feng YQ, Gong HY, Li Y, Fang G, Tang HR, Li YS (2015) Functional inactivation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1 (UAP1) induces early leaf senescence and defence responses in rice. J Exp Bot 66(3):973–987

  27. Wang M, Zhang T, Peng H, Luo S, Tan JJ, Jiang KF, Heng YQ, Zhang X, Guo XP, Zheng JK, Cheng ZJ (2018) Rice premature leaf senescence 2. Encoding a glycosyltransferase (GT) is involved in leaf senescence. Front Plant Sci 9:560

  28. Wellburn AR (1994) The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J Plant Physiol 144:307–313

  29. Whyte P, Luckwill LC (1966) A sensitive bioassay for gibberellins based on retardation of leaf senescence in Rumex obtusifolius (L.). Nature 210:1360

  30. Wu LW, Ren DY, Hu SK, Li GM, Dong GJ, Jiang L, Hu XM, Ye WJ, Cui YT, Zhu L, Hu J, Zhang GH, Gao ZY, Zeng DL, Qian Q, Guo LB (2016) Down-regulated of a nicotinate phosphoribosyl transferase gene, OsNaPRT1, leads to withered leaf tips. Plant Physiol 171:1085–1098

  31. Yamatani H, Sato Y, Masuda Y, Kato Y, Morita R, Fukunaga KJ, Nagamura Y, Nishimura M, Sakamoto W, Tanaka A, Kusaba M (2013) NYC4, the rice ortholog of Arabidopsis THF1, is involved in the degradation of chlorophyll-protein complexes during leaf senescence. Plant J 74:652–662

  32. Yang XL, Nian JQ, Xie QJ, Feng J, Zhang FX, Jing HW, Zhang J, Dong GJ, Liang Y, Peng JL, Zuo JR, Qian Q, Zuo JR (2016a) Rice Ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase regulates nitrogen-carbon metabolomes and is genetically differentiated between japonica and indica subspecies. Mol Plant 9:1520–1534

  33. Yang YL, Xu J, Huang LC, Leng YJ, Dai LP, Rao YC, Chen L, Wang YQ, Tu ZJ, Hu J, Ren DY, Zhang GH, Zhu L, Guo LB, Qian Q, Zeng DL (2016b) PGL, encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase 1, impacts leaf senescence and indirectly affects grain yield and quality in rice. J Exp Bot 67:1297–1310

  34. Yu HP, Ren DY, Zhu YZ, Xu JM, Wang YX, Liu RF, Fang YX, Shi ZY, Pan JJ, Lu M, Ma BJ, Hu J, Rao YC (2016) MULTI-TILLERING DWARF1, a new allele of BRITTLE CULM 12, affects plant height and tiller in rice. Sci Bull 61:1810–1817

  35. Zhang M, Zhang B, Qian Q, Yu Y, Li R, Zhang J, Liu X, Zeng D, Li J, Zhou Y (2010) Brittle culm 12, a dual-targeting kinesin-4 protein, controls cell-cycle progression and wall properties in rice. Plant J 63:312–328

  36. Zhang DP, Zhou Y, Yin JF, Yan XJ, Lin S, Xu WF, Baluška F, Wang YP, Xia YJ, Liang GH (2015) Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation. J Exp Bot 66:6371–6384

  37. Zhao L, Tan LB, Zhu ZF, Xiao LT, Xie DX, Sun CQ (2015) PAY1 improves plant architecture and enhances grain yield in rice. Plant J 83(3):528–536

  38. Zhao Y, Chan ZL, Gao JH, Xing L, Cao MJ, Yu CM, Hu YL, You J, Shi HT, Zhu YF, Gong YH, Mu ZX, Wang HQ, Deng X, Wang PC, Bressan RA, Zhu JK (2016) ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:1949–1954

Download references


This work was supported by the Chong Qing Science & Technology Commission (Grants cstc2016shms-ztzx80007 and cstc2017shms-xdny80057) and the National Key Program for Research and Development (2016YFD0100501).

Author information

Correspondence to Xian-chun Sang.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by P. Wojtaszek.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 15 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ni, J., Wen, X., Tang, C. et al. v301, a new allele of BRITTLE CULM 12, and its regulation of the early senescence of the leaf blade in rice. Acta Physiol Plant 42, 15 (2020).

Download citation


  • Rice
  • Premature ageing
  • Peroxidation system
  • BC12