Flower yield and chemical composition of essential oil from Rosa damascena under foliar application of Ca(NO3)2 and seasonal variation


Rosa damascena is an important essential oil-bearing industrial crop. Rose essential oil is extremely precious natural ingredient in aromatic, cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, ecology and plant nutrition play major roles in flower yield and composition of oil. The main objective was to understand the effects of seasonal variation and foliar application of Ca(NO3)2 on R. damascena under the western Himalayan conditions. Thus, a field experiment was conducted with 12 treatment combinations involving two cropping seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014) and six levels of Ca(NO3)2 (water spray as control, Ca(NO3)2 at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 g L−1 of water). The first cropping season produced significantly higher flower yield (1044.55 g bush−1) than the second cropping season (699.89 g bush−1). Irrespective of the cropping seasons, the foliar application of Ca(NO3)2 at 10.0 g L−1 registered significantly higher flower yield (993.56 g bush−1) compared with the controlled treatment, but remained statistically at par with 7.5 and 12.5 g L−1. Although the essential oil content in flower was not affected by both the factors, the variations were observed in chemical compositions of essential oil. Analysed data revealed that the effect of seasonal variation on compositions of essential oil was more pronounced compared to the application of Ca(NO3)2. The PCA biplots also indicated the highly positive correlations among the major hydrocarbons. Despite the significant effects of seasonal variation on the accumulations of total N and P in leaves, insignificant results were found for K and Chl. The results suggest that flower yield and compositions of oil are governed by the environmental conditions; moreover, the higher flower yield can be obtained through the foliar application of Ca(NO3)2 under rainfed conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Al-Hamzawi MKA (2010) Effect of calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and anfaton on growth and storability of plastic houses cucumber (Cucumissativus L.). Am J Plant Physiol 5:278–290

  2. Ali AA, Ikeda M, Yamada Y (1991) Effects of supply of K, Ca and Mg on absorption and assimilation of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen in tomato plants. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 37(2):283–289

  3. Arnon DI (1949) Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 24:1–15

  4. Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora 199:361–376

  5. Baser KHC (1992) Turkish rose oil. Perfu Flavor 17:45–52

  6. Basim E, Basim H (2003) Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil. Fitoterapia 74(4):394–396

  7. Baydar H, Baydar NG (2005) The effects of harvest date, fermentation duration and Tween 20 treatment on essential oil content and composition of industrial oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.). Ind Crop Prod 21:251–255

  8. Baydar NG, Baydar H (2013) Phenolic compounds, antiradical activity and antioxidant capacity of oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) extracts. Ind Crop Prod 21:251–255

  9. Baydar NG, Baydar H, Debener T (2004) Analysis of genetic relationships among Rosa damascena plants grown in Turkey by using AFLP and microsatellite markers. J Biotechnol 111(3):263–267

  10. Bhargava BS, Raghupathi (2001) Analysis of plant materials for macro and micronutrients. In: Tandon HLS (ed) Methods of analysis of soils, plants, waters and fertiliser. Fertiliser Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, p 144

  11. Boskabady MH, Shafei MN, Saberi Z, Amini S (2011) Pharmacological effects of Rosa damascena. Iran J Basic Med Sci 14:295–307

  12. Buttner R (2001) Rosa. In: Hanelt P (ed) Mansfeld’s encyclopaedia of agricultural and horticultural crops. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Researches, pp 439–445

  13. Chai MF, Chen QJ, An R, Chen YM, Chen J, Wang XC (2005) NADK2, an Arabidopsis chloroplastic NAD kinase, plays a vital role in both chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast protection. Plant Mol Biol 59:553–564

  14. Dehghani D, Omidi H, Sabaghnia N (2008) Graphic analysis of trait relations of canola (Brassica napus L.) using biplot method. Agron J 100:760–764

  15. Dobreva A, Velcheva V, Bardarov V, Bardarov K (2013) Chemical composition of different genotypes oil-bearing roses. Bulg J Agric Sci 19(6):1213–1218

  16. Dordas C (2009) Foliar application of calcium and magnesium improves growth, yield, and essential oil yield of oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum). Ind Crop Prod 29:599–608

  17. Dordas C, Apostolides G, Goundra O (2007) Boron application affects seed yield and seed quality of sugarbeets. J Agric Sci 145:377–384

  18. Dudareva N, Pichersky E (2000) Biochemical and molecular genetic aspects of floral scents. Plant Physiol 122:627–633

  19. Easterwood GW (2002) Calcium's role in plant nutrition. Fluid J Winter:1–3

  20. Ehret DL, Ho LC (1986) Translocation of calcium in relation to tomato fruit growth. Ann Bot 58:679–688

  21. Erbas S, Baydar H (2016) Variation in scent compounds of oil bearing Rose (Rose damascena Mill.) produced by headspace solid phase microextraction, hydrodistillation and solvent extraction. Rec Nat Prod 10(5): 555–565

  22. Fageria NK, Filho MPB, Moreira A, Guimares CM (2009) Foliar fertilization of crop plants. J Plant Nutr 32(6):1044–1064

  23. Fenn LB, Taylor RM, Burks CM (1994) Calcium stimulation of ammonium absorption and growth by beet. Agron J:916–920

  24. Gislerod HR, Selmer-Olsen AR, Mortensen LM (1987) The effect of air humidity on nutrient uptake of some greenhouse plants. Plant Soil 102:193

  25. Gong M, Van der Liut AH, Knight MR, Trewaves AJ (1998) Heat shock induced changes in intracellular Ca2 + level in tobacco seedlings in relation to thermo tolerance. Plant Physiol 116:429–437

  26. Heidari S, Azizib M, Soltania F, Hadian J (2014) Foliar application of Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3 affects growth, essential oil content, and oil composition of French tarragon. Ind Crop Prod 62:526–532

  27. Hepler PK (2005) Calcium: a central regulator of plant growth and development. Plant Cell 17(8):2142–2155

  28. Jones RG, Lunt OR (1967) The function of calcium in plants. Bot Rev 33:407–426

  29. Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Stoyanova A, Balinova A, Guangjiun Z, Xihan M (2005) Solid phase micro extraction/gas chromatographic and olfactory analysis of the scent and fixative properties of the essential oil of Rosa damascena L. from China. Flavour Fragr J 20:7–12

  30. Kaya C, Kirnak H, Higgs D, Saltali K (2002) Supplementary calcium enhances plant growth and fruit yield in strawberry cultivars grown at high (NaCl) salinity. Sci Hortic 93:65–74

  31. Kazaz S, Erbas S, Baydar H, Dilmacunal T, Koyuncu MA (2010) Cold storage of oil rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) flowers. Sci Hortic 126:284–290

  32. Lawlor DW (2002) Carbon and nitrogen assimilation in relation to yield: mechanisms are the key to understanding production systems. J Exp Bot 53:773–787

  33. Lawrence BM (1986) Essential oil production. A discussion of influencing factors. In: Parliament TH, Croteau R (eds) Biogeneration of aroma. American Chemical Society, New York, pp 363–369

  34. Lefebre LR, Rivero RM, Garia PC, Sanchez E, Ruiz EM, Romero L (2000) Role of CaCl2 on ammonium assimilation in roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). J Plant Physiol 156:672–677

  35. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, p 889.

  36. Miller AJ, Cramer MD (2004) Root nitrogen acquisition and assimilation. Plant Soil 274:1–36

  37. Mortensen LM, Fjeld T (1995) High air humidity reduces the keeping quality of cut roses. Acta Hortic 405:148–155

  38. Mossor-Pietraszewska T (2001) Effect of aluminium on plant growth and metabolism. Acta Biochim Pol 3:673–686

  39. Mumivand H, Babalar M, Hadian J, Fakhr-Tabatabaei M (2011) Plant growth and essential oil content and composition of Satureja hortensis L. cv. Saturn in response to calcium carbonate and nitrogen application rates. J Med Plants Res 5(10): 1859–1866

  40. Muto S, Izawa S, Miyachi S (1982) Light-induced Ca2 + uptake by intact chloroplasts. FEBS Lett 139:250–254

  41. Najem W, Beyrouthy ME, Wakim LH, Neema C, Ouaini N (2011) Essential oil composition of Rosa damascena Mill. from different localities in Lebanon. Acta Bot Gallica 158(3): 365–373

  42. Ormeno E, Blady V, Ballinic C (2008) Production and diversity of volatile terpenes from plants on calcareous and siliceous soils. J Chem Ecol 34:1219–1229

  43. Ozkan G, Sagdiç O, Baydar NG, Baydar H (2004) Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosa damascena flower extracts. Food Sci Technol Int 10(4):277–281

  44. Pal PK, Mahajan M (2017) Pruning system and foliar application of MgSO4 alter yield and secondary metabolite profile of Rosa damascena under rainfed acidic conditions. Front Plant Sci 8:507

  45. Pal PK, Singh RD (2013) Understanding crop-ecology and agronomy of Rosa damascena Mill. for higher productivity. Aus J Crop Sci 7(2): 196–205

  46. Pal PK, Agnihotri VK, Gopichand SRD (2014) Impact of level and timing of pruning on flower yield and secondary metabolites profile of Rosa damascena under western Himalayan region. Ind Crop Prod 52:219–227

  47. Pal PK, Mahajan M, Agnihotri VK (2016) Foliar application of plant nutrients and kinetin modifies growth and essential oil profile in Rosa damascena under acidic conditions. Acta Physiol Plant.

  48. Prasad R, Shivay YS, Kumar D, Sharma SN (2006) Learning by doing exercise in soil fertility—practical manual for soil fertility. Division of agronomy. IARI, New Delhi

  49. Rusanov K, Kovacheva N, Vosman B, Zhang L, Rajapakse S, Atanassov A, Atanassov I (2005) Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties. Theor Appl Genet 111:804–809

  50. Shawl AS, Adams R (2009) Rose oil in Kashmiri India. Perf Flav 34:2–5

  51. Shin HK, Lieth JH, Kim SH (2001) Effects of temperature on leaf area and flower size in rose. Acta Hortic 547:185–191

  52. Soltani F, Heidaria S, Azizib M, Hadian J (2015) Influence of Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3 application on biomass, yield, oil and mineral contents of Tarragon in “Ray” region. J Agric Sci 7(1):19–29

  53. Suh EJ, Park KW (2000) Effect of calcium ion in nutrient solution on the content and composition of essential oil of sweet basil in hydroponics. J Korean Soc Hortic Sci 41:598–601

  54. Supanjani TARM, Yang MS, Han HS, Lee KD (2005) Calcium effects on yield, mineral uptake and terpene components of hydroponic Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Res J Agric Biol Sci 1(2):146–151

  55. Tabaei-Aghdaei SR, Hosseini-Monfared H, Fahimi H, Ebrahimzadeh H, Jebelly M, Naghavi MR, Babaei A (2006) Genetic variation analysis of different population of Rosa damascena Mill. in NW, Iran using RAPD markers. Iran J Bot 12:121–127

  56. Tanaka A, Tsuji H (1980) Effects of calcium on chlorophyll synthesis and stability in the early phase of greening in cucumber cotyledons. Plant Physiol 65(6):1211–1215

  57. Tomimori S, Nagaya Y, Tashiro Y, Taniyama T (1995) Exhaust characteristics and loads of fertilizer nutrients in drainage from a golf course Japanese. J Crop Sci 64(4):682–691

  58. Ushio A, Mae T, Makino A (2008) Effects of temperature on photosynthesis and plant growth in the assimilation shoots of a rose. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 54:253–258

  59. Wesołowski P, Sapek B, Durkowski T (2002) Comparing the effect of calcium nitrate with ammonium nitrate on meadow productivity located on peat-moors soil. Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie 2(1): 57–64 (in Polish)

  60. White PJ (2012) Long-distance transport in the xylem and phloem. In: Marschner P (ed) Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants. Elsevier, Berlin, pp 50–61

  61. Yan W, Rajcan I (2002) Biplot analysis of test sites and trait relations of soybean in Ontario. Crop Sci 42:11–20

  62. Yildirim E, Karlidag H, Turan M (2009) Mitigation of a salt stress in strawberry by foliar K, Ca and Mg nutrient supply. Plant Soil Environ 55:213–221

  63. Yilmaz D, Ekinci K, Dilmacunal T, Erbas S (2011) Effect of harvesting hour on some physical and mechanical properties of Rosa damascena Mill. J Sci Food Agric 91(9):1585–1590

  64. Younis A, Khan MA, Ali A, Pervaiz MA (2006) Performance of four Rosa species under Faisalabad agro-climatic conditions. Canderno de Pesquisa ser Bio Santa Cruz do Sul 18:17–27

  65. Zharare GE, Asher CJ, Blamey FPC (2009) Calcium nutrition of peanut grown in sol culture I. Genetic requirements for vegetative growth. J Plant Nutr 32:1831–1842

  66. Zheljazkov VD, Cantrell CL, Astatkie T, Ebelhar MW (2010) Peppermint productivity and oil composition as a function of nitrogen, growth stage, and harvest time. Agron J 102:124–128

Download references


The authors are thankful to the Director of CSIR-IHBT, Palampur, India, for providing necessary facilities for this work. We thank Mr. Ramdeen Prasad and Mrs. Vijaylata Pathania for technical support. The authors are also grateful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) New Delhi for financial support in network Project BSC-0110.


This research was funded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India Grant no [BSC-0110 and HCP-0007].

Author information

Correspondence to Probir Kumar Pal.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by P. Wojtaszek.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 127 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mahajan, M., Pal, P.K. Flower yield and chemical composition of essential oil from Rosa damascena under foliar application of Ca(NO3)2 and seasonal variation. Acta Physiol Plant 42, 23 (2020).

Download citation


  • Ca(NO3)2
  • Essential oil
  • Geraniol
  • Rainfed conditions
  • Rosa Damascena
  • Seasonal variation