Physiological effects of strobilurin and carboxamides on plants: an overview

  • Amanda Cristina Esteves AmaroEmail author
  • Daniel Baron
  • Elizabeth Orika Ono
  • João Domingos Rodrigues


Usually, fungicides are used to control and prevent diseases, however, a group of fungicides called strobilurins has brought about a new possibility of use for these products: the physiological effects. This group of fungicides modifies the plant physiology, through changes in metabolism and growth, which increases crop yield. Another group of fungicides, which also reveal physiological effects, is carboxamides. However, there are still only a few publications in scientific journals regarding the effects of the molecules of this group, since they were just introduced in the market recently. The carboxamides when applied together with or alternately to strobilurins potentiate their action. Both are systemic fungicides that operate preventively and have a little curative effect, but the preventive application of these products yields benefits, in addition to protecting the plant by increasing production through its physiological benefits. The physiological effects detected when applying strobilurins or carboxamides in healthy plants are due to the increase in net photosynthesis (true photosynthesis minus dark respiration and photorespiration), as it temporarily reduces plant respiration, which led to less carbon dioxide loss and, consequently, generates more energy for the plant. Besides, the increase in antioxidant enzymes provokes increased tolerance to stress. It also results in higher activity of nitrate reductase and a better hormonal balance, increasing the synthesis of indolyl acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), as well as reduced ethylene production, delayed senescence and prolonged photosynthetic efficiency, known as "green effect". These effects, together, increase productivity and fruit quality.


Boscalid Carboxamide Pyraclostrobin Strobilurin 



The authors wish to thank the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). Amanda C. E. Amaro was the recipient of FAPESP grant number 2008/56632–7.


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© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Biociências (IB), Departamento de BotânicaUniversidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Câmpus BotucatuBotucatuBrazil
  2. 2.Centro de Ciências da Natureza (CCN), Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory. CP-094Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Campus Lagoa Do SinoBuriBrazil

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