Role of exogenous signaling molecules in alleviating salt-induced oxidative stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.): a comparative study

  • Md. Tahjib-Ul-ArifEmail author
  • Sonya Afrin
  • Mohammed Arif Sadik Polash
  • Tahmina Akter
  • Shuma Rani Ray
  • Md. Tofazzal Hossain
  • M. Afzal Hossain
Original Article


Intensified salt stress is an acute hindrance to crop cultivation, whereas plant signaling molecules can efficiently prompt salinity tolerance. Therefore, this study was accomplished to explore the potential salinity stress-mitigating effect of different signaling molecules in rice. The rice (cv. BRRI dhan29) seeds were immersed in 20 mM KNO3, 0.15 mM H2O2, 0.8 mM AsA (ascorbic acid) and 10 mM CaCl2 solutions for 24 h. Eventually, primed seeds were exposed to 75 mM NaCl in Petri dishes during germination. Moreover, 14-day-old rice seedlings were pretreated with different agents, viz., KNO3, H2O2, AsA and CaCl2 (concentrations were same as previous), for 2 days. Primed and non-primed seedlings were grown for 4 days under 75 mM NaCl stress condition. The result revealed that salt stress caused reduced germination indices and pre-seedling and seedling growth inhibition and impaired photosynthetic capacity, whereas catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POX) activities were decreased in salt-treated plants. However, application of the four signaling molecules promoted the germination indices and growth and resisted chlorosis. Pretreatment with CaCl2 and AsA was observed to be relatively more efficient in conferring salinity tolerance of rice as reflected from the significant enhanced germination and growth in the saline medium by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity, both at germination and seedling stage. All the selected signaling molecules significantly detoxified excess ROS, i.e., H2O2 and \({\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot - }\) and reduced lipid peroxidation by up-regulating the enzymes, CAT, APX and POX. Moreover, H2O2 and KNO3 pretreatment also mitigated salt-imposed oxidative stress and enhanced growth performance of rice seedlings. Overall, the study confirms that CaCl2 and AsA pretreatment were more effective than H2O2 and KNO3 priming to improve salt tolerance in rice.


Antioxidant enzymes Germination stage Seedling stage Proline ROS scavenging Salt stress Seed priming 



Ascorbate peroxidase


Ascorbic acid


Calcium chloride




Electrical conductivity


Germination indices


Hydrogen peroxide


Potassium nitrate




Mean germination time

\({\text{O}}_{2}^{ \cdot - }\)





Vigor index



The authors have gratefully acknowledged the technical support provided by the Central Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during this research work.


  1. Abbasi GH, Akhtar J, Anwar-ul-Haq M et al (2014) Exogenous potassium differentially mitigates salt stress in tolerant and sensitive maize hybrids. Pak J Bot 46:135–146Google Scholar
  2. Afrin S, Tahjib-Ul-Arif M, Sakil MA, Sohag AAM, Polash MAS, Hossain MA (2019) Hydrogen peroxide priming alleviates chilling stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by enhancing oxidant scavenging capacity. Fundam Appl Agric 4:713–722Google Scholar
  3. Afzal I, Basra SMA, Farooq M, Nawaz A (2006) Alleviation of salinity stress in spring wheat by hormonal priming with ABA, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. Int J Agric Biol 8:23–28Google Scholar
  4. Afzal I, Rauf S, Basra SMA, Murtaza G (2008) Halopriming improves vigor, metabolism of reserves and ionic contents in wheat seedlings under salt stress. Plant Soil Environ 54:382–388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Afzal I, Butt A, Rehman HU et al (2012) Alleviation of salt stress in fine aromatic rice by seed priming. Aust J Crop Sci 6:1401–1407Google Scholar
  6. Ain-Lhout F, Zunzunegui M, Barradas MCD et al (2001) Comparison of proline accumulation in two Mediterranean shrubs subjected to natural and experimental water deficit. Plant Soil 230:175–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alhasnawi AN, Kadhimi AA, Isahak A et al (2015) Exogenous application of ascorbic acid ameliorates detrimental effects of salt stress in rice (MRQ74 and MR269) seedlings. Asian J Crop Sci 7:186–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alhasnawi AN, Che Radziah CMZ, Kadhimi AA et al (2016) Enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities in rice callus by ascorbic acid under salinity stress. Biol Plant 60:783–787. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ambede JG, Netondo GW, Mwai GN, Musyimi DM (2012) NaCl salinity affects germination, growth, physiology, and biochemistry of bambara groundnut. Braz J Plant Physiol 24:151–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Amjad M, Ziaf K, Iqbal Q et al (2007) Effect of seed priming on seed vigour and salt tolerance in hot pepper. Pak J Agric Sci 44:408–414Google Scholar
  11. Anil VS, Krishnamurthy P, Kuruvilla S et al (2005) Regulation of the uptake and distribution of Na + in shoots of rice (Oryza sativa) variety Pokkali: role of Ca2+ in salt tolerance response. Physiol Plant 124:451–464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anjum NA (2015) Book review: oxidative damage to plants-antioxidant networks and signaling. Front Plant Sci. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Anjum SA, Xie X, Wang L et al (2011) Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. Afr J Agric Res 6:2026–2032. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Anosheh HP, Sadeghi H, Emam Y (2011) Chemical priming with urea and KNO3 enhances maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) seed viability under abiotic stress. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 14:289–295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166:3–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ashraf M, Rauf H (2001) Inducing salt tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) through seed priming with chloride salts: growth and ion transport at early growth stages. Acta Physiol Plant 23:407–414. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ashraf M, Athar HR, Harris PJC, Kwon TR (2008) Some prospective strategies for improving crop salt tolerance. Adv Agron 97:45–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ashraf MA, Rasheed R, Hussain I et al (2015) Hydrogen peroxide modulates antioxidant system and nutrient relation in maize (Zea mays L.) under water-deficit conditions. Arch Agron Soil Sci 61:507–523. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Azooz MM, Alzahrani AM, Youssef MM (2013) The potential role of seed priming with ascorbic acid and nicotinamide and their interactions to enhance salt tolerance in broad bean (‘Vicia faba’ L.). Aust J Crop Sci 7:2091Google Scholar
  21. Azzedine F, Gherroucha H, Baka M (2011) Improvement of salt tolerance in durum wheat by ascorbic acid application. J Stress Physiol Biochem 7:27–37Google Scholar
  22. Bajehbaj AA (2010) The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower germination and seedling grown under salinity conditions. Afr J Biotechnol 9:1764–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. BBS (2014) Bangladesh bureau of statistics, statistical year book of Bangladesh. Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, pp 33–36Google Scholar
  25. Beckers GJM, Conrath U (2007) Priming for stress resistance: from the lab to the field. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:425–431. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chang DC, Meng C (1995) A localized elevation of cytosolic free calcium is associated with cytokinesis in the zebrafish embryo. J Cell Biol 131:1539–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cooper A (1988) The ABC of NFT. Nutrient film technique. Grower Books, London, p 181Google Scholar
  28. Ejaz B, Sajid ZA, Aftab F (2012) Effect of exogenous application of ascorbic acid on antioxidant enzyme activities, proline contents, and growth parameters of Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. HSF-240 under salt stress. Turk J Biol 36:630–640. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elham R, Mehdi GS, Hasan ANB (2011) The effect of salinity on the growth, morphology and physiology of Echium amoenum Fisch. Mey. Afr J Biotechnol 10:8765–8773. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. FAO (2010) Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, TerraSTAT databaseGoogle Scholar
  31. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Saleem BA et al (2005) Enhancement of tomato seed germination and seedling vigor by osmopriming. Pak J Agric Sci 42:3–4Google Scholar
  32. Farooq M, Barsa SMA, Wahid A (2006) Priming of field-sown rice seed enhances germination, seedling establishment, allometry and yield. Plant Growth Regul 49:285–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Rehman H, Saleem BA (2008) Seed priming enhances the performance of late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by improving chilling tolerance. J Agron Crop Sci 194:55–60. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fita A, Rodríguez-Burruezo A, Boscaiu M et al (2015) Breeding and domesticating crops adapted to drought and salinity: a new paradigm for increasing food production. Front Plant Sci 6:686–690. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garg OP, Kapoor V (1972) Retardation of leaf senescence by ascorbic acid. J Exp Bot 23:699–703. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gondim FA, Gomes-Filho E, Lacerda CF et al (2010) Pretreatment with H2O2 in maize seeds: effects on germination and seedling acclimation to salt stress. Braz J Plant Physiol 22:103–112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hangarter RP (1997) Gravity, light and plant form. Plant Cell Environ 20:796–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hasanuzzaman M, Alam MM, Rahman A et al (2014) Exogenous proline and glycine betaine mediated upregulation of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems provides better protection against salt-induced oxidative stress in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Biomed Res Int 2014:1–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hassanpouraghdam MB, Pardaz JE, Akhtar NF (2009) The effect of osmo-priming on germination and seedling growth of Brassica napus L. under salinity conditions. J Food Agric Environ 7:620–622Google Scholar
  41. Hayat S, Hayat Q, Alyemeni MN et al (2012) Role of proline under changing environments. Plant Signal Behav 7:1456–1466. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 125:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hepler PK (1994) The role of calcium in cell division. Cell Calcium 16:322–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hütsch BW, Osthushenrich T, Faust F et al (2016) Reduced sink activity in growing shoot tissues of maize under salt stress of the first phase may be compensated by increased PEP-carboxylase activity. J Agron Crop Sci 202:384–393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Iqbal M, Ashraf M (2007) Seed treatment with auxins modulates growth and ion partitioning in salt-stressed wheat plants. J Integr Plant Biol 49:1003–1015. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jaleel CA, Sankar B, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R (2008) Soil salinity alters growth, chlorophyll content, and secondary metabolite accumulation in Catharanthus roseus. Turk J Biol 32:79–83Google Scholar
  47. Kanawapee N, Sanitchon J, Lontom W, Threerakulpisut P (2012) Evaluation of salt tolerance at the seedling stage in rice genotypes by growth performance, ion accumulation, proline and chlorophyll content. Plant Soil 358:235–249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaya MD, Okçu G, Atak M et al (2006) Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Eur J Agron 24:291–295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kaya C, Tuna AL, Okant AM (2010) Effect of foliar applied kinetin and indole acetic acid on maize plants grown under saline conditions. Turk J Agric For 34:529–538. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan AL, Hamayun M, Kim Y-H et al (2011) Ameliorative symbiosis of endophyte (Penicillium funiculosum LHL06) under salt stress elevated plant growth of Glycine max L. Plant Physiol Biochem 49:852–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kilic S, Kahraman A (2016) The mitigation effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide when alleviating seed germination and seedling growth inhibition on salinity-induced stress in barley. Pol J Environ Stud 25:1053–1059. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kochak-zadeh A, Mousavi S, Eshraghi-nejad M (2013) The effect of salinity stress on germination and seedling growth of native and breeded varieties of wheat. J Nov Appl Sci 2:703–709Google Scholar
  53. Lorenzo H, Siverio JM, Caballero M (2001) Salinity and nitrogen fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in rose plants. J Agric Sci 137:77–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matthews S, Khajeh Hosseini M (2006) Mean germination time as an indicator of emergence performance in soil of seed lots of maize (Zea mays). Seed Sci Technol 34:339–347. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mavi K, Ermis S, Demir I (2006) The effect of priming on tomato rootstock seeds in relation to seedling growth. Asian J Plant Sci 5:940–947. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Metzner H, Rau H, Senger H (1965) Investigations on the synchronizability of single pigment-deficient mutants of chlorella. Planta 65:186–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miller G, Suzuki N, Ciftci-Yilmaz S, Mittler R (2010) Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signalling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant Cell Environ 33:453–467. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mishra P, Bhoomika K, Dubey RS (2013) Differential responses of antioxidative defense system to prolonged salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Protoplasma 250:3–19. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Moeinzadeh A, Sharif-Zadeh F, Ahmadzadeh M, Tajabadi Fh (2010) Biopriming of Sunflower (“Helianthus annuus” L.) seed with ‘Pseudomonas fluorescens’ for improvement of seed invigoration and seedling growth. Aust J Crop Sci 4:564Google Scholar
  60. Mohammad H (2013) Hydrogen peroxide priming stimulates drought tolerance in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings. Plant Gene Trait 4:109–123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Munns R, James RA, Läuchli A (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J Exp Bot 57:1025–1043. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Nakano Y, Asada K (1981) Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiol 22:867–880. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nawaz F, Naeem M, Akram A et al (2017) Seed priming with KNO3 mediates biochemical processes to inhibit lead toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.). J Sci Food Agric 97:4780–4789. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Park HJ, Kim W-Y, Yun D-J (2016) A new insight of salt stress signaling in plant. Mol Cells 39:447. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Patade VY, Bhargava S, Suprasanna P (2009) Halopriming imparts tolerance to salt and PEG induced drought stress in sugarcane. Agric Ecosyst Environ 134:24–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Paul S, Roychoudhury A (2016) Seed priming with spermine ameliorates salinity stress in the germinated seedlings of two rice cultivars differing in their level of salt tolerance. Trop Plant Res 3:616–633. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pessarakli M (2016) Handbook of photosynthesis. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  69. Rahman A, Nahar K, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2016) Calcium supplementation improves Na+/K+ ratio, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in salt-stressed rice seedlings. Front Plant Sci. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Ramzan A, Hafiz IA, Ahmad T, Abbasi NA (2010) Effect Of priming with potassium nitrate and dehusking on seed germination of gladiolus (Gladiolus alatus). Pak J Bot 42:247–258Google Scholar
  71. Roy P, Tahjib-Ul-Arif MM, Akter T et al (2016) Advances in Environmental Biology Exogenous ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content. Adv Environ Biol 10:148–154Google Scholar
  72. Razaji A, Asli DE, Farzanian M (2012) The effects of seed priming with ascorbic acid on drought tolerance and some morphological and physiological characteristics of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Ann Biol Res 3:3984–3989Google Scholar
  73. Rengasamy P (2006) World salinization with emphasis on Australia. J Exp Bot 57:1017–1023. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rodriguez-Aguilera JC, Navarro F, Arroyo A et al (1995) Vitamin C stabilization as a consequence of the plasma membrane redox system. Protoplasma 184:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saed-Moocheshi A, Shekoofa A, Sadeghi H, Pessarakli M (2014) Drought and salt stress mitigation by seed priming with KNO3 and urea in various maize hybrids: an experimental approach based on enhancing antioxidant responses. J Plant Nutr 37:674–689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sanchez-Casas P, Klessig DF (1994) A salicylic acid-binding activity and a salicylic acid-inhibitable catalase activity are present in a variety of plant species. Plant Physiol 106:1675–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sano T, Ivashikina N, Hedrich R, Soriichirou S (2007) The role of potassium ion in cell division and cell cycle progression of tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell Physiol 48:294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sevengor S, Yasar F, Kusvuran S, Ellialtioglu S (2011) The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes of pumpkin seedling. Afr J Agric Res 6:4920–4924Google Scholar
  79. Shahi-Gharahlar A, Khademi O, Farhoudi R, Mirahmadi SF (2010) Influence of salt (NaCl, CaCl2, KNO3) stress on germination and early seedling growth traits of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed. Seed Sci Biotechnol 4:37–40Google Scholar
  80. Shalata A, Neumann PM (2001) Exogenous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increases resistance to salt stress and reduces lipid peroxidation. J Exp Bot 52:2207–2211. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sivritepe HÖ, Sivritepe N, Eriş A, Turhan E (2005) The effects of NaCl pre-treatments on salt tolerance of melons grown under long-term salinity. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 106:568–581. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Snedden WA, Fromm H (2001) Calmodulin as a versatile calcium signal transducer in plants. New Phytol 151:35–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI) (2010) Saline soils of Bangladesh, SRMAF Project, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, pp 1–55Google Scholar
  84. Tahi H, Wahbi S, El Modafar C et al (2008) Changes in antioxidant activities and phenol content in tomato plants subjected to partial root drying and regulated deficit irrigation. Plant Biosyst Int J Deal Asp Plant Biol 142:550–562. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tahjib-Ul-Arif M, Roy PR, Sohag AAM, Afrin S, Rady MM, Hossain MA (2018a) Exogenous calcium supplementation improves salinity tolerance in BRRI dhan28; a salt-susceptible high-yielding Oryza sativa cultivar. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 21:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tahjib-Ul-Arif M, Siddiqui MN, Sohag AAM, Sakil MA, Rahman MM, Polash MAS, Mostofa MG, Tran LSP (2018b) Salicylic acid-mediated enhancement of photosynthesis attributes and antioxidant capacity contributes to yield improvement of maize plants under salt stress. J Plant Growth Regul. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tamimi SM (2016) Effect of seed priming on growth and physiological traits of five Jordanian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces under salt stress. J Biosci Agric Res 11:906–922. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Teerarak M, Bhinija K, Thitavasanta S, Laosinwattana C (2009) The impact of sodium chloride on root growth, cell division, and interphase silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 121:228–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tiquia SM (2010) Reduction of compost phytotoxicity during the process of decomposition. Chemosphere 79:506–512. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Uchida K (2003) 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal: a product and mediator of oxidative stress. Prog Lipid Res 42:318–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Uddin MK, Juraimi AS, Ismail MR et al (2012) Physiological and growth responses of six turfgrass species relative to salinity tolerance. Sci World J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Velikova V, Yordanov I, Edreva A (2000) Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants. Plant Sci 151:59–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wahid A, Shabbir A (2005) Induction of heat stress tolerance in barley seedlings by pre-sowing seed treatment with glycinebetaine. Plant Growth Regul 46:133–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wahid A, Perveen M, Gelani S, Basra SMA (2007) Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 improves salt tolerance of wheat seedlings by alleviation of oxidative damage and expression of stress proteins. J Plant Physiol 164:283–294. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Wani AS, Ahmad A, Hayat S, Tahir I (2016) Is foliar spray of proline sufficient for mitigation of salt stress in Brassica juncea cultivars? Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:13413–13423. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wutipraditkul N, Wongwean P, Buaboocha T (2015) Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative stress in rice seedlings by proline and/or glycinebetaine. Biol Plant 59:547–553. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yancey PH (2005) Organic osmolytes as compatible, metabolic and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses. J Exp Biol 208:2819–2830. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Yazdanpanah S, Baghizadeh A, Abbassi F (2011) The interaction between drought stress and salicylic and ascorbic acids on some biochemical characteristics of Satureja hortensis. Afr J Agric Res 6:798–807. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Tahjib-Ul-Arif
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sonya Afrin
    • 2
  • Mohammed Arif Sadik Polash
    • 3
  • Tahmina Akter
    • 1
  • Shuma Rani Ray
    • 1
  • Md. Tofazzal Hossain
    • 1
  • M. Afzal Hossain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Soil ScienceBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of Crop BotanyBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh

Personalised recommendations