Exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid pretreatment ameliorates oxidative stress triggered by low-temperature stress of Solanum lycopersicum
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Low temperature is an important limiting factor in tomato production in early spring and winter. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) protects crops against varied abiotic stresses. However, the methodology to precisely use ALA to increase the cold tolerance in tomatoes is still not fully known. We therefore explored the effects of ALA concentration, application period, and dose on membrane lipid peroxidation, antioxidation, photosynthesis, and plant growth in different tomato cultivars (Zhongza No. 9, ZZ and Jinpeng No. 1, JP) at low-temperature stress. Results revealed that low temperature caused plants oxidative damage and growth inhibition in both ZZ and JP plants. The ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content and the relative electrical conductivity) were more remarkable in JP plants than ZZ plants under low temperature. The catalase (CAT) and ascorbate–glutathione cycle (AsA–GSH) induced by ALA reliably eliminated excessive ROS to maintain the redox balance in both tomato cultivars under low-temperature stress. In AsA–GSH cycle, AsA regeneration was mainly catalyzed by dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), from dehydroascorbate (DHA) to AsA and monodehydroascorbate (MDA) to AsA in ZZ plants, while AsA regeneration in JP plants was mostly catalyzed by DHAR, from DHA to AsA. The ALA optimum concentration was 25 mg L−1. The tomato plants with five true leaves pretreated with 6 mL ALA were more effective than spraying after cold occurred. In conclusion, the two tomato varieties illustrated different capacities to bear low-temperature stress. And ZZ plants were more tolerant to low temperature than JP plants. Precise ALA pretreatment observably alleviated low temperature induced-damage via CAT and AsA–GSH cycle in both cultivars. The regeneration of AsA in AsA–GSH cycle may be more comprehensive in ZZ plants than JP plants, to better tolerate low-temperature stress.
Keywords5-Aminolevulinic acid Tomato Low temperature Concentration Dose Spray period
This work was supported by the National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program) (2013AA103004), the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-23-C-05) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772359).
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