Reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant defense system in hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum) upon β-pinene exposure: an early time course assessment
We investigated the effect of β-pinene on reactive oxygen species (ROS: lipid peroxidation, membrane integrity, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide ions) generation and activity of antioxidant defense system during early hours of treatment (4, 8, 16 and 24 h) in hydroponically grown Triticum aestivum (wheat). β-Pinene reduced the root and shoot growth of the hydroponically grown wheat. However, the reduction was more pronounced in root length than in shoot length. β-Pinene enhanced ROS generation as indicated by increased levels of malondialdehyde (20–87 %), hydrogen peroxide (9–45 %) and superoxide ion (23–179 %) content, thereby suggesting lipid peroxidation and induction of oxidative stress in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The oxidative damage was more pronounced at ≥10 µM β-pinene and at ≥8 h after exposure. β-Pinene caused a severe electrolyte leakage from wheat roots indicating membrane disruption and loss of integrity. Enhanced lipid peroxidation and loss of membrane integrity were confirmed by in situ histochemical studies. β-Pinene provoked increase in the activity of lipoxygenase and upregulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalases, superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases. The enhanced activity of lipoxygenases evoked by β-pinene paralleled higher accumulation of MDA, thereby suggesting that antioxidant defense mechanism was not able to prevent β-pinene-induced lipid peroxidation.
KeywordsOxygenated monoterpene Oxidative damage ROS generation Scavenging mechanism Membrane disruption
Nadia Chowhan and Aditi Shreeya Bali are thankful to University Grants Commission (New Delhi, India) and Department of Science and Technology (New Delhi, India) for the financial support in the form of BSR fellowship and Inspire Fellowship, respectively.
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