Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 859–870 | Cite as

Mapping and candidate gene identification defining BnChd1-1, a locus involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis in Brassica napus

  • Hua Zhao
  • Lei Yu
  • Zexun Huai
  • Xiaohua Wang
  • Guangda Ding
  • Shuisen Chen
  • Peng Li
  • Fangsen XuEmail author
Original Paper


The chlorophyll-deficient mutant (Bnchd1) is a spontaneous mutant of Brassica napus. Compared with the wild type, ‘Qingyou 10’, Bnchd1 exhibits distinct phenotypes, including interveinal yellowing leaves at the seedling stage and light-green leaves at the bolting stage, dwarfism throughout the lifespan, extremely low seed yields and abnormally shaped and early degradation of chloroplasts. Defective chloroplasts significantly reduce the levels of pigment in Bnchd1 at the seedling and bolting stages. Genetic analysis showed that two recessive genes, designated BnChd1-1 and BnChd1-2, are responsible for the light-green phenotype. BnChd1-1 was determined to be a single Mendelian factor in a BC2F1 population based on a phenotypic segregation ratio of 1:1. BnChd1-1 was mapped to a region of A01 using a BC3F1 population of 394 individuals with 198 green and 196 light-green plants. Within the collinear region in Brassica rapa, six genes that might be involved in chloroplast thylakoid development and NDH dehydrogenase activity were annotated. Among the six candidate genes, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the mRNA levels of Bra021529 and Bra040517 were undetectable in the mutant and high in Qingyou10 and Westar plants at the seedling stage. Additionally, DNA sequence differences were identified across the gene and promoter region. Protein sequence differences were also observed in Bra040517, while no sequence differences in Bra021529 were observed between Bnchd1 and Qingyou10. Therefore, the homologue of Bra040517 is the most likely candidate gene for BnChd1-1.


Brassica napus mutant BnChd1-1 Genetic mapping Chlorophyll Chloroplast 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31100243) and the Natural Sciences and Technology Fund of Hubei Province, China (2011CDB157). We thank Dr. Lingqiang Wang at Huazhong Agricultural University for the kind help in ultrastructure observation, and Dr. Nian Wang at Oil crops research institute, CAAS for the technical assistance in bioinformatics.

Supplementary material

11738_2013_1464_MOESM1_ESM.doc (242 kb)
Plant phenotypic characterisation in Qingyou 10 and BnChd1. The phenotype of the mutant’s second youngest leaf from the top included a deficient leaf colour (chlorosis between veins) (a), a comparison of the leaf colour and size between Bnchd1 and Qingyou 10 (b), and all the leaves of a plant in the early seedling stage (2 weeks) (c). Growth comparisons of the first developed leaf from the apical growing point between Qingyou 10 and Bnchd1 mutants at the bolting stage (d). (DOC 242 kb)
11738_2013_1464_MOESM2_ESM.doc (49 kb)
The mRNA expression levels of four homologous genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast thylakoid development, Bra021411, Bra040519, Bra021327 and Bra040046, in Bnchd1, Qingyou 10 and Westar plants at the seedling stage. (DOC 49 kb)
11738_2013_1464_MOESM3_ESM.doc (805 kb)
Nucleotide sequence alignment of candidate genes between Qingyou 10, Westar and Bnchd1 plants. (DOC 805 kb)
11738_2013_1464_MOESM4_ESM.doc (176 kb)
Protein sequence alignment of candidate genes between Qingyou 10, Westar and Bnchd1. (DOC 176 kb)
11738_2013_1464_MOESM5_ESM.doc (34 kb)
Secondary structure differences in Bra040517 between Qingyou 10 and Bnchd1. (DOC 34 kb)
11738_2013_1464_MOESM6_ESM.doc (31 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (DOC 31 kb)


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hua Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lei Yu
    • 3
  • Zexun Huai
    • 1
  • Xiaohua Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guangda Ding
    • 1
  • Shuisen Chen
    • 1
  • Peng Li
    • 4
  • Fangsen Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic ImprovementHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.College of Urban and Environment scienceCentral China Normal UniversityWuhanChina
  4. 4.College of Landscape ArchitectureNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinChina

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