Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 35, Issue 7, pp 2205–2217 | Cite as

Root restriction affected anthocyanin composition and up-regulated the transcription of their biosynthetic genes during berry development in ‘Summer Black’ grape

  • Bo Wang
  • Jianjun He
  • Yang Bai
  • Xiuming Yu
  • Jiefa Li
  • Caixi Zhang
  • Wenping Xu
  • Xianjin Bai
  • Xiongjun Cao
  • Shiping Wang
Original Paper


Root restriction was applied to ‘Summer black’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L.) to investigate its effect on anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry during development. Anthocyanin composition and expression patterns of 16 genes in anthocyanin pathway were thus analyzed. The results showed that the anthocyanin levels in berry skin were significantly increased and the anthocyanin profile was enriched. Gene expression pattern revealed that the increased anthocyanins coincide with the up-regulated expression of all 16 genes investigated, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase, chalcone synthase 1, chalcone synthase 2, chalcone synthase 3, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase 1, flavanone 3-hydroxylase 2, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H), flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), di-hydroflavonol 4-reductase, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, O-methyltransferases (OMT), UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl-transferase (3GT), UDP-glucose:flavonoid 5-O-glucosyl-transferase (5GT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The increased total anthocyanins predominantly resulted from the increase of tri-hydroxylated, methoxylated and mono-glycosylated rather than di-hydroxylated, non-methoxylated, and di-glycosylated forms, which might be due to the differential regulation of F3′5′H/F3′H, OMT and 3GT, respectively.


Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L. Root restriction Anthocyanins Gene expression Composition Content 



Total soluble solid


Titratable acid














Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase




4-Coumarate CoA ligase


Chalcone synthase


Chalcone isomerase


Flavanone 3β-hydroxylase


Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase


Flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase


Di-hydroflavonol 4-reductase


Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase




UDP-Glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase


UDP-Glucose:flavonoid 5-O-glucosyltransferase


Anthocyanin acyltransferase




Glutathione S-transferase


Days after anthesis



This research was supported by the Special Funds of Modern Industrial Technology System for Agriculture (CARS-30) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (31201580/C150101). We wish to thank Dr. Juan Xu from National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, for her comments and corrections.

Supplementary material

11738_2013_1257_MOESM1_ESM.doc (36 kb)
Supplementary Table S1 (DOC 35 kb)


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Wang
    • 1
  • Jianjun He
    • 1
  • Yang Bai
    • 2
  • Xiuming Yu
    • 1
  • Jiefa Li
    • 1
  • Caixi Zhang
    • 1
  • Wenping Xu
    • 1
  • Xianjin Bai
    • 3
  • Xiongjun Cao
    • 4
  • Shiping Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and BiologyShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Guangxi Nanning Xiangsi Grape Agriculture and Technology Limited CompanyNanningChina
  3. 3.Guangxi Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanningChina
  4. 4.Grape and Wine Research Institute of Guangxi Agriculture Science AcademyNanningChina

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