Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 34, Issue 5, pp 1747–1755 | Cite as

Salt tolerance of Hibiscus hamabo seedlings: a candidate halophyte for reclamation areas

  • Junmin LiEmail author
  • Jingjing Liao
  • Ming Guan
  • Enfeng Wang
  • Jing Zhang
Original Paper


In order to evaluate the salinity tolerance of Hibiscus hamabo Siebold & Zuccarini (Malvaceae), a candidate halophyte for reclamation areas, we analyze the effects of NaCl concentration, ranging from 0 to 500 mM, on the morphological, photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescent traits of this species. The optimal concentration for the germination of H. hamabo was 25 mM NaCl, and the optimal concentration for the survival and growth of H. hamabo ranged from 5 to 10 mM NaCl. Growth traits of H. hamabo at 25 mM, including the plant height, canopy diameter, number of leaves and width of the largest leaf, showed no statistical differences from the control. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conduction, light utilization efficiency, water utilization efficiency, maximal photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and chlorophyll content were the highest at 7.5 mM NaCl. F v/F m and F v/F 0 at 5 and 7.5 mM were significantly higher than the others, while F 0 was significantly lower. F m and F v at NaCl concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 10 mM were significantly higher than the others. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the chlorophyll content, maximal photosynthetic rate and light saturation point were significantly positively correlated with the number of leaves, while F 0 was significantly negatively correlated with the width of the largest leaf. Light compensation point was significantly negatively correlated with plant height, leaf number, width of the largest leaf and canopy diameter, and might be a good indicator for the salt tolerance of H. hamabo.


Hibiscus hamabo Salt stress Photosynthesis Chlorophyll fluorescence Chlorophyll content Growth 



We thank T. Suja and D. Ashley for the English editing of the paper. This study was supported by the Yuhuan Science Technology Bureau of Zhejiang Province.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that no competing interests exist.


  1. Abogadallah GM, Serage MM, El-Katouny TM, Quick WP (2010) Salt tolerance at germination and vegetative growth involves different mechanisms in barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli L.) mutants. Plant Growth Reg 60:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora 199:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell DT, McComb JA, Vander-Moezel PG, Bennett IJ, Kabay ED (1994) Comparisons of selected and cloned plantlets against seedlings for rehabilitation of saline and waterlogged discharge zones in Australia agricultural catchments. Aus For 57:69–75Google Scholar
  4. Björkman O, Demmig B (1987) Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta 170:489–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bo PF, Sun XL, Song J, Du XH, Xue QR (2008) Effect of NaCl stress on the germination and the content of Na+ and K+ of Hibiscus hamabo Sieb et Zucc. seeds. J Anhui Agric Sci 36:3098–3100Google Scholar
  6. Cambrollé J, Redondo-Gómez S, Mateos-Naranjo E, Luque T, Figueroa ME (2010) Physiological responses to salinity in the yellow-horned poppy, Glaucium flavum. Plant Physiol Biochem 49:186–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chartzoulakis KS (2005) Salinity and olive: growth, salt tolerance, photosynthesis and yield. Agric Water Manag 78:108–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Flexas J, Gulías J, Jonasson S, medrano H, Mus M (2001) Seasonal patterns and control of gas exchange in local populations of the Mediterranean evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus L. Acta Oecol 22:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goldstein G, Drake DR, Alpha C, Melcher P, Heraux J, Azocar A (1996) Growth and photosynthetic responses of Scaevola sericea, a Hawaiian coastal shrub, to substrate salinity and salt spray. Int J Plant Sci 157:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guja LK, Merritt DJ, Dixon KW (2010) Buoyancy, salt tolerance and germination of coastal seeds: implications for oceanic hydrochorous dispersal. Funct Plant Biol 37:1175–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hajiboland R, Aliasgharzadeh N, Laiegh SF, Poschenrieder C (2010) Colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improves salinity tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. Plant Soil 331:313–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hamid MA, Agata W, Kawamitsu Y (1990) Photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency in four cultivars of mungbean. Photosynthetica 24:96–101Google Scholar
  13. Heuer B, Plaut Z (1981) Carbon dioxide fixation of isolated chloroplasts and intact sugar beet plants grown under saline conditions. Ann Bot 48:261–268Google Scholar
  14. Hsu TW, Chang HK (2000) Physical impact on the reclamation area resulting from offshore dredging at the Changhwa coast, Taiwan. Ocean Eng 28:235–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiménez MS, GonzálezRodríguez AM, Morales D, Cid MC, Socorro AR, Caballero M (1997) Evaluation of chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for salt stress detection in roses. Photosynthetica 33:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khamzina A, Lamers JPA, Vlek PLG (2009) Nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia in the reclamation of degraded croplands of Central Asia. Tree Physiol 29:799–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khan MA, Ungar IA, Showalter AM (1999) The effect of salinity on growth ion content, and osmotic relations in Halopyrum mucronanum (L.) Stapf. J Plant Nutr 22:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krause GH, Weis E (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Biol 42:313–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurban H, Saneoka H, Nehira K, Adila R, Premachandra GS, Fujita K (1999) Effect of salinity on growth, photosynthesis and mineral composition in leguminous plant Alhagi pseudoalhagi (Bieb.). Soil Sci Plant Nutr 45:851–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Locy RD, Chang CC, Nielsen BL, Singh NK (1996) Photosynthesis in slat-adapted heterotrophic tobacco cells and regenerated plants. Plant Physiol 110:321–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Long SP, Baker NR, Rains CA (1993) Analyzing the responses of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Vegetation 104:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence. A practical guide. J Exp Bot 51:37–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McAlpine KG, Jesson LK, Kubien DS (2008) Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency: a comparison between invasive (exotic) and non-invasive (native) species. Aus Ecol 33:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meloni DA, Oliva MA, Ruiz HA, Martinez CA (2001) Contribution of proline and inorganic solutes to osmotic adjustment in cotton under salt stress. J Plant Nutr 24:599–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mishra A, Sharma SD (2010) Influences of forest tree species on reclamation of semiarid sodic soils. Soil Use Manag 26:445–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mohammad M, Shibli R, Ajlouni M, Nimri L (1998) Tomato root and shoot responses to salt stress under different levels of phosphorus nutrition. J Plant Nutr 21:1667–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nasim M, Qureshi RH, Aziz T, Saqib M, Nawaz S, Akhtar J, Haq MA, Sahi ST (2009) Different Eucalyptus species show different mechanisms of tolerance to salinity and salinity × hypoxia. J Plant Nutr 32:1427–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nedjimi B (2009) Salt tolerance strategies of Lygeum spartum L.: a new fodder crop for Algerian saline steppes. Flora 204:747–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Netto AT, Campostrini E, Azevedo LC, Souza MA, Ramalho JC, Chaves MM (2009) Morphological analysis and photosynthetic performance of improved papaya genotypes. Braz J Plant Physiol 21:209–222Google Scholar
  30. Ögren E (1993) Convexity of the photosynthetic light-response curve in relation to intensity and direction of light during growth. Plant Physiol 101:1013–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 60:324–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Porras-Soriano A, Soriano-Martin ML, Porras-Piedra A, Azcón R (2009) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased growth, nutrient uptake and tolerance to salinity in olive trees under nursery conditions. J Plant Physiol 166:1350–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Prado CHBA, Moraes JAPV (1997) Photosynthetic capacity and specific leaf mass in twenty woody species of cerrado vegetation under filed conditions. Photosynthetica 33:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Praxedes SC, de Lacerda CF, Damatta FM, Prisco JT, Gomes-Filho E (2010) Salt tolerance is associated with differences in ion accumulation, biomass allocation and photosynthesis in cowpea cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 196:193–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Qadir M, Schubert S, Badia D, Sharma BR, Qureshi AS, Murtaza G (2007) Amelioration and nutrient management strategies for sodic and alkali soils. CAB rev Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Resour 21:1–13Google Scholar
  36. Ranjbarfordoei A, Samson R, Damme PV (2006) Chlorophyll fluorescence performance of sweet almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D. Webb] in response to salinity stress induced by NaCl. Photosynthetica 44:513–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ranjbarfordoei A, Samson R, Van Damme P (2011) Photosynthesis performance in sweet almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. Webb] exposed to supplemental UV-B radiation. Photosynthetica 49:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rawat JS, Banerjee SP (1998) The influence of salinity on growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. seedlings. Plant Soil 205:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ritter E (2007) Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in volcanic soils following afforestation with native birch (Betula pubescens) and introduced larch (Larix sibirica) in Iceland. Plant Soil 295:239–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shannon MC, Rhoades JD, Draper JH, Scardaci SC, Spyres MD (1998) Assessment salt tolerance in rice cultivars in response to salinity problems in California. Crop Sci 38:394–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sheng M, Tang M, Chen H, Yang B, Zhang FF, Huang YH (2008) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 18:287–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sudhir P, Murthy SDS (2004) Effects of salt stress on basic processes of photosynthesis. Photosynthetica 42:481–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sun JK, Li T, Xia JB, Tian JY, Lu ZH, Wang RT (2011) Influence of salt stress on ecophysiological parameters of Periploca sepium Bunge. Plant Soil Environ 57:139–144Google Scholar
  44. Talaat NB, Shawky BT (2011) Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on yield, nutrients, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes of two wheat cultivars under salt stress. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 174:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tezara W, Mitchell V, Driscoll SP, Lawlor DW (2002) Effects of water deficit and its interaction with CO2 supply on the biochemistry and physiology of photosynthesis in sunflower. J Exp Bot 53:1781–1791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Turjaman M, Tamai Y, Santoso E, Osaki M, Tawaraya K (2006) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased early growth of two nontimber forest product species Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filarial under greenhouse conditions. Mycorrhiza 16:459–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (1994) Flora of China, vol 12. Science Press, Beijing, pp 287–288Google Scholar
  48. Yang H, Du GJ, Wang KH (2008) Study on the physiological characteristics of Hibiscus hamabo under stress. J Zhejiang For Sci Technol 28:43–47Google Scholar
  49. Yu FH, Dong M, Zhang CY (2002) Phenotypic plasticity in response to salinity content in four clones of a stoloniferous herb Halerpestes ruthenica. Acta Phytoecol Sin 26:240–248Google Scholar
  50. Zhou HF, Fang CL, Li HX, Wu TG (2009) Study on photosynthesis of Hibiscus hamabo in wave break forest in coastal zone. J Fujian For Sci Technol 36:255–258Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junmin Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jingjing Liao
    • 1
  • Ming Guan
    • 1
  • Enfeng Wang
    • 2
  • Jing Zhang
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of EcologyTaizhou UniversityLinhaiChina
  2. 2.Zhejiang Yuhuan Lűye Agriculture Technology Co. LtdYuhuanChina
  3. 3.School of Life ScienceShanxi Normal UniversityLinfenChina

Personalised recommendations