Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 797–802 | Cite as

Combination of endophytic and rhizospheric plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Oryza sativa shows higher accumulation of osmoprotectant against saline stress

  • Yachana JhaEmail author
  • R. B. Subramanian
  • Suchita Patel
Original Paper


The effect of endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria was studied on salt stress in a local paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety GJ-17. Plants inoculated with endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes showed significantly higher concentration of glycine betaine-like quaternary compounds and higher shoot biomass at lower salinity levels. While at higher salinity levels, mixture of both P. pseudoalcaligenes and Bacillus pumilus showed better response against the adverse effects of salinity. However, accumulation of proline showed an opposite trend against plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatment in salinity stress. Proline concentration increased with salinity but decreased in plants inoculated with either of the PGPRs or mixture of both P. pseudoalcaligenes and B. pumilus. The present study shows that inoculation of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) with a mixture of endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria could serve as a useful tool for alleviating salinity stress.


PGPR Endophytic Rhizospheric Glycine betaine-like quaternary compounds Proline 


  1. Asharf M, Foolad MR (2007) Role of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai Y, Zhou X, Smith DL (2003) Enhanced soybean plant growth resulting from coinoculation of Bacillus strains with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Crop Sci 43:1774–1781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheeseman JM (1988) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Physiol 87:547–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Döbereiner J (1989) Isolation and identification of root associated diazotrophs. Plant Soil 110:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Felsenstein J (1989) PHYLIP—Phylogeny Inference Package (Version 3.2). Cladistics 5:164–166Google Scholar
  7. Grieve CM, Grattan SR (1983) Rapid assay for determination of water soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. Plant Soil 70:303–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gutierrez-Manero FJ, Ramos-Solano B, Probanza A, Mehouachi J, Tadeo FR, Talon M (2001) The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis produce high amounts of physiologically active gibberellins. Physiol Plant 111:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanson AD, Nelson CE (1978) Betaine accumulation and (14C) formate metabolism in water stressed barley leaves. Plant Physiol 62:305–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jha Y, Subramanian RB (2009) Endophytic Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes shows better response against the Magnaportha grisea than a rhizospheric Bacillus pumilus in Oryza sativa (Rice). Arch Phytopathol PFL. doi: 10.1080/03235400903145400 Google Scholar
  11. Kimura M (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16:111–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kloepper JW, Scrhoth MN, Miller TD (1980) Effects of rhizosphere colonization by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on potato plant development and yield. Phytopathology 70:1078–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kohler J, Hernandez JA, Caravaca F, Roldan A (2009) Induction of antioxidant enzymes is involved in the greater effectiveness of a PGPR versus AM fungi with respect to increasing the tolerance of lettuces to severe salt stress. Environ Exp Bot 64:207–216Google Scholar
  14. Kumar SG, Reddy AM, Sudhakar C (2003) Nacl effects on proline metabolism in two high yielding genotypes of mulberry (Morus alba L.) with contrasting salt tolerance. Plant Sci 165:1245–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mandhania S, Madan S, Sawhney V (2006) Antioxidant defense mechanism under salt stress in wheat seedling. Biol Plant 50:227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reiter B, Wermbter N, Gyamfi S, Schwab H, Sessitsch A (2003) Endophytic Pseudomonas spp. populations of pathogen-infected potato plants analysed by 16S rDNA- and 16S rRNA-based denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis. Plant Soil 257:397–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rhodes D, Hanson AD (1993) Quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher-plants. Annu Rev Plant Phys 44:357–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Swofford DL (1998) PAUP, and other methods. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ, Clustal W (1994) Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vranova E, Inze D, Van Breusegem F (2002) Signal transduction during oxidative stress. J Exp Bot 53:1227–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xie C-H, Yokota A (2004) Phylogenetic analyses of the nitrogen-fixing genus Derxia. J Gen Appl Microbiol 50:129–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yancy PH, Clark ME, Hand SC, Bowlus RD, Somero GN (1982) Living with water stress, evolution of osmolytes systems. Science 217:1214–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yeo A (1998) Molecular biology of salt tolerance in the context of whole-plant physiology. J Exp Bot 49:915–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yachana Jha
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. B. Subramanian
    • 2
  • Suchita Patel
    • 2
  1. 1.N. V. Patel College of Pure and Applied SciencesSardar Patel UniversityV. V. Nagar, AnandIndia
  2. 2.BRD School of BiosciencesSardar Patel UniversityV. V. NagarIndia

Personalised recommendations