Loss-of-function of DELLA protein SLN1 activates GA signaling in barley aleurone
- 265 Downloads
Gibberellic acid (GA) is an important signaling molecule that participates in many aspects of plant growth and development. While the importance of this hormone is clear, the transcriptional regulatory networks involved are still being characterized. The cereal aleurone, particularly the barley aleurone, has been used as a classic model to study GA and GA signaling for many years, and these studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of GA in plant biology. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcripts regulated through the DELLA protein SLN1, a negative regulator of the GA signaling pathway. To detect the transcripts, Affymetrix Barley 1 GeneChips were hybridized with RNA extracted from barley aleurone treated with GA or aleurone of the DELLA mutant sln1c without GA treatment. The transcripts detected, in term of both expressed genes and their function, were highly similar between the GA-treatment and the sln1c mutant. These results from a genome-wide transcript analysis provide evidence that SLN1 in the GA signal transduction pathway controls almost all GA-induced genes in the barley aleurone.
KeywordsAleurone Gibberellic acid DELLA SLN1 Hordeum vulgare Transcripts
Significance analysis of microarray
The authors thank Stacey Madson, and Sandra BonDurant for their technical help, Dr. Lishuang Shen (Virtual Reality Applications Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA) for searching BarleyBase, Dr. Peter M. Chandler (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Plant Industry, Canberra, Australia) for kindly providing sln1 mutants and treatment method, and Dr. Ron Skadsen and Dr. Li Lin for their critical reading and thoughtful comments in the manuscript. This research was partially funded by USDA ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit CRIS fund and North American Barley Genome Mapping Project.
Disclaimer Note Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name by USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable.
- Achard P, Baghour M, Chapple A, Hedden P, Van Der Straeten D, Genschik P, Moritz T, Harberd NP (2007) The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:6484–6489. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0610717104 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Foster CA (1977) Slender: an accelerated extension growth mutant of barley. Barley Genet Newslett 7:24–27Google Scholar
- Griffiths J, Murase K, Rieu I, Zentella R, Zhang Z-L, Powers SJ, Gong F, Phillips AL, Hedden P, Sun T-P, Thomas SG (2006) Genetic characterization and functional analysis of the GID1 gibberellin receptors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 18:3399–3414. doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.047415 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ikeda A, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Sonoda Y, Kitano H, Koshioka M, Futsuhara Y, Matsuoka M, Yamaguchi J (2001) Slender rice, a constitutive gibberellin response mutant, is caused by a null mutation of the SLR1 gene, an ortholog of the height-regulating gene GAI/RGA/RHT/D8. Plant Cell 13:999–1010. doi: 10.1105/tpc.13.5.999 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iuchi S, Suzuki H, Kim Y-C, Iuchi A, Kuromori T, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Asami T, Yamaguchi I, Matsuoka M, Kobayashi M, Nakajima M (2007) Multiple loss-of-function of arabidopsis gibberellin receptor atgid1s completely shuts down a gibberellin signal. Plant J 50:958–966. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03098.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaneko M, Inukai Y, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Itoh H, Izawa T, Kobayashi Y, Hattori T, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Ashikari M, Matsuoka M (2004) Loss-of-function mutations of the rice GAMYB gene impair α-amylase expression in aleurone and flower development. Plant Cell 16:33–44. doi: 10.1105/tpc.017327 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakajima M, Shimada A, Takashi Y, Kim Y-C, Park S-H, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Suzuki H, Katoh E, Iuchi S, Kobayashi M, Maeda T, Matsuoka M, Yamaguchi I (2006) Identification and characterization of arabidopsis gibberellin receptors. Plant J 46:880–889. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02748.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oh E, Yamaguchi S, Hu J, Yusuke J, Jung B, Paik I, Lee H-S, Sun T-P, Kamiya Y, Choi G (2007) PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein, regulates gibberellin responsiveness by binding directly to the GAI and RGA promoters in Arabidopsis seeds. Plant Cell 19:1192–1208. doi: 10.1105/tpc.107.050153 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng J, Richards DE, Hartley NM, Murphy GP, Devos KM, Flintham JE, Beales J, Fish LJ, Worland AJ, Pelica F, Sudhakar D, Christou P, Snape JW, Gale MD, Harberd NP (1999) ‘Green revolution’ genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Nature 400:256–261. doi: 10.1038/22307 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsuji H, Aya K, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Shimada Y, Nakazono M, Watanabe R, Nishizawa NK, Gomi K, Shimada A, Kitano H, Ashikari M, Matsuoka M (2006) GAMYB controls different sets of genes and is differentially regulated by microRNA in aleurone cells and anthers. Plant J 47:427–444. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02795.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Nakajima M, Katoh E, Ohmiya H, Asano K, Saji S, Hongyu X, Ashikari M, Kitano H, Yamaguchi I, Matsuoka M (2007) Molecular interactions of a soluble gibberellin receptor, GID1, with a rice DELLA protein, SLR1, and gibberellin. Plant Cell 19:2140–2155. doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.043729 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar