Advertisement

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 553–563 | Cite as

Leaf movement and photosynthetic plasticity of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) alleviate stress under different light and water conditions

  • Fei Xu
  • Weihua Guo
  • Renqing Wang
  • Weihong Xu
  • Ning Du
  • Yufang Wang
Original Paper

Abstract

Leaf morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings were studied under different stress conditions. The plants were subjected to drought and shade stress for one month. Leaf inclination, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content were measured at the first day (short-term stress) and at the end of the stress period (long-term stress) and in the recovery period. Leaf inclination was affected mainly by light; a low level of irradiance caused leaves to be arranged horizontally. Diurnal rhythmicity was lost after the long-term stress, but resumed, in part, in the recovery period. Drought stress caused leaves to tilt more obviously and decreased damage to the photosystem. Sun avoiding movement in a single leaf and sun tracking movement in the whole plant coexisted. Significant physiological changes occurred under different conditions of light. Increased energy dissipation and light capture were the main responses to high and low level of irradiance, respectively, and these were reflected by changes of chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content. Phenotypic plasticity in the leaflet enhanced the protective response to stress. These adaptive mechanisms may explain better survival of R. pseudoacacia seedlings in the understory, especially during the drought periods, and made it to be the preponderant reforestation species in Shandong Province of China.

Keywords

Black locust Chlorophyll fluorescence Drought Leaf inclination Light acclimation Photosynthetic plasticity 

Abbreviations

Chl

Chlorophyll

ETR

Electron transport rate

F0 and Fm

Initial and maximal fluorescence in the dark

Fs and Fm′

Steady-state and maximal fluorescence in the light

Fv/Fm

Maximal quantum yield

FC

Field capacity

LAI

Leaf area index

NPQ

Non-photochemical quenching

PAR

Photosynthetically active radiation

PFD

Photon flux density

PS II

Photosystem ΙΙ

qP

Photochemical quenching

RLCs

Rapid light curves

SLA

Specific leaf area

Yield or ΦPSII

Effective quantum yield

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Yuanzu Xu for building the experimental equipment, to Yue Yu and Lei Liu for assistance in the field and laboratory measurements, to Dr. Jian Liu and Hui Wang for their valuable comments and suggestions on the manuscript, and to Asia Science Editing for linguistic advice. This research was supported financially by the Key Project of Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. Z2006D04; Z2007D02), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in the University of China (No. NCET-07-0511) and Shandong Distinguished Middle-aged and Young Scientist Encouraged and Reward Foundation (No. 2006BS08004).

References

  1. Barker DH, Adams WWIII (1997) The xanthophyll cycle and energy dissipation in differently oriented faces of the cactus Opuntia macrorhiza. Oecologia 109:353–361. doi: 10.1007/s004420050093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cui XY, Niu HS, Wu J, Gu S, Wang YF, Wang SP, Zhao XQ, Tang YH (2006) Response of chlorophyll fluorescence to dynamic light in three alpine species differing in plant architecture. Environ Exp Bot 58:149–157. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fernández M, Gil L, Pardos JA (2000) Effects of water supply on gas exchange in Pinus pinaster Ait. Provenances during their first growing season. Ann Sci 57:9–16. doi: 10.1051/forest:2000107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Galmés J, Medrano H, Flexas J (2007) Photosynthesis and photoinhibition in response to drought in a pubescent (var. minor) and a glabrous (var. palaui) variety of Digitalis minor. Environ Exp Bot 60:105–111. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2006.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gamon JA, Pearcy RW (1989) Leaf movement, stress avoidance and photosynthesis in Vitis californica. Oecologia 79:475–481. doi: 10.1007/BF00378664 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Genty B, Briantais JM, Baker NR (1989) The relationship between quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990:87–92Google Scholar
  7. Guo WH, Li B, Huang YM, Zhao HX, Zhang XS (2003) Effects of different water stresses on eco-physiological characteristics of Hippophae rhamnoides seedlings. Acta Bot Sin 45:1238–1244Google Scholar
  8. Guo WH, Li B, Zhang XS, Wang RQ (2007) Architectural plasticity and growth responses of Hippophae rhamnoides and Caragana intermedia seedlings to simulated water stress. J Arid Environ 69:385–399. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hong SS, Xu DQ (1999) Light-induced increase in initial chlorophyll fluorescence F0 level and the reversible inactivation of PS II reaction centers in soybean leaves. Photosynth Res 61:269–280. doi: 10.1023/A:1006357203466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ikeda T, Matsuda R (2002) Effects of soybean leaflet inclination on some factors related to photosynthesis. J Agric Sci 138:367–373. doi: 10.1017/S0021859602002083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ishida A, Toma T, Marjenah (1999) Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in relation to leaf angle, azimuth, and canopy position in the tropical pioneer tree, Macaranga conifera. Tree Physiol 19:117–124Google Scholar
  12. Jiang CD, Gao HY, Zou Q, Jiang GM, Li LH (2006) Leaf orientation, photorespiration and xanthophylls cycle protect young soybean leaves against high irradiance in field. Environ Exp Bot 55:87–96. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnson GH, Young AJ, Scholes JD, Horton P (1993) The dissipation of excess excitation energy in British plant species. Plant Cell Environ 16:673–679. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.1993.tb00485.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kato E, Nagano H, Yamamura S, Ueda M (2003) Synthetic inhibitor of leaf-closure that reveals the biological importance of leaf-movement for the survival of leguminous plants. Tetrahedron 59:5909–5917. doi: 10.1016/S0040-4020(03)00906-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krause GH, Weis E (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:313–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leakey ADB, Press MC, Scholes JD (2003) Patterns of dynamic irradiance affect the photosynthetic capacity and growth of dipterocarp tree seedlings. Oecologia 135:184–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lemoine D, Peltier JP, Marigo G (2001) Comparative studies of the water relations and the hydraulic characteristics in Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus and A. opalus trees under soil water contrasted conditions. Ann Sci 58:723–731. doi: 10.1051/forest:2001159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liao Y, Xu DQ (2007) Novel evidence for a reversible dissociation of light-harvesting complex II from photosystem II reaction center complex induced by saturating light illumination in soybean leaves. J Integr Plant Biol 49:523–530. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00435.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lichtenthaler HK, Wellburn AR (1983) Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochem Soc Trans 11:591–592Google Scholar
  20. Lin MJ, Hsu BD (2004) Photosynthetic plasticity of Phalaenopsis in response to different light environments. J Plant Physiol 161:1259–1268. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2004.05.009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu CC, Welham CVJ, Zhang XQ, Wang RQ (2007) Leaflet movement of Robinia pseudoacacia in response to a changing light environment. J Integr Plant Biol 49:419–424. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00392.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu LX, Xu SM, Woo KC (2003) Influence of leaf angle on photosynthesis and the xanthophyll cycle in the tropical tree species Acacia crassicarpa. Tree Physiol 23:1255–1261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mediavilla S, Escudero A (2003) Mature tree versus seedlings: differences in leaf traits and gas exchange patterns in three co-occurring Mediterranean oaks. Ann Sci 60:455–460. doi: 10.1051/forest:2003038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moshelion M, Becker D, Czempinski K, Mueller-Roeber B, Attali B, Hedrich R, Moran N (2002) Diurnal and circadian regulation of putative potassium channels in a leaf moving organ. Plant Physiol 128:634–642. doi: 10.1104/pp.010549 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Muraoka H, Takenaka A, Tang YH, Koizumi H, Washitani I (1998) Flexible leaf orientations of Arisaema heterophyllum maximize light capture in a forest understorey and avoid excess irradiance at a deforested site. Ann Bot (Lond) 82:297–307. doi: 10.1006/anbo.1998.0682 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Niinemets Ü, Kollist H, García-Plazaola JI, Hernández A, Becerril JM (2003) Do the capacity and kinetics for modification of xanthophyll cycle pool size depend on growth irradiance in temperate trees? Plant Cell Environ 26:1787–1801. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3040.2003.01096.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Osmond CB, Grace SC (1995) Perspectives on photoinhibition and photorespiration in the field: quintessential inefficiencies of the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. J Exp Bot 46:1351–1362Google Scholar
  28. Parker WC, Mohammed GH (2000) Photosynthetic acclimation of shade-grown red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings to high light environment. New For 19:1–11. doi: 10.1023/A:1006668928091 Google Scholar
  29. Proietti P, Palliotti A (1997) Contribution of adaxial and abaxial surfaces of olive leaves to photosynthesis. Photosynthetica 33:63–69. doi: 10.1023/A:1022175221813 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quero JL, Villar R, Marañón T, Zamora R (2006) Interactions of drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species: physiological and structural leaf responses. New Phytol 170:819–834. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01713.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Quick WP, Stitt M (1989) An examination of factors contributing to non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in barley leaves. Biochim Biophys Acta 977:287–296. doi: 10.1016/S0005-2728(89)80082-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ralph PJ, Gademann R (2005) Rapid light curves: a powerful tool to assess photosynthetic activity. Aquat Bot 82:222–237. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Richards RA, Rawson HM, Johnson DA (1986) Glaucousness in wheat: its development and effect on water-use efficiency, gas exchange and photosynthetic tissue temperatures. Aust J Plant Physiol 13:465–473Google Scholar
  34. Schreiber U, Schliwa U, Bilger W (1986) Continuous recording of photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching with a new type of modulation fluorometer. Photosynth Res 10:51–62. doi: 10.1007/BF00024185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schreiber U, Bilger W, Neubauer C (1994) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a nonintrusive indicator for rapid assessment of in vivo photosynthesis. In: Schulze ED, Caldwell MM (eds) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Berlin, pp 49–70Google Scholar
  36. Sharma VK, Bardal TK, Johnsson A (2003) Light-dependent changes in the leaflet movement rhythm of the plant Desmodium gyrans. Z Naturforsch 58c:81–86Google Scholar
  37. Smith M, Ullberg D (1989) Effect of leaf angle and orientation on photosynthesis and water relations in Silphium terebinthinaceum. Am J Bot 76:1714–1719. doi: 10.2307/2444470 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sun JD, Nishio JN (2001) Why abaxial illumination limits photosynthetic carbon fixation in spinach leaves. Plant Cell Physiol 42:1–8. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pce001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thomas FM, Gausling T (2000) Morphological and physiological responses of oak seedlings (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to moderate drought. Ann Sci 57:325–333. doi: 10.1051/forest:2000123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang GG, Bauerle WL, Mudder BT (2006) Effects of light acclimation on the photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation in American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings. For Ecol Manage 226:173–180. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang RQ, Zhou GY (2000) The vegetation of Shandong Province. Shandong Science and Technology Publication, Jinan, pp 153–156Google Scholar
  42. Werner C, Correia O, Beyschlag W (1999) Two different strategies of Mediterranean macchia plants to avoid photoinhibitory damage by excessive radiation levels during summer drought. Acta Oecol 20:15–23. doi: 10.1016/S1146-609X(99)80011-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. White AJ, Critchley C (1999) Rapid light curves: a new fluorescence method to assess the state of the photosynthetic apparatus. Photosynth Res 59:63–72. doi: 10.1023/A:1006188004189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang SR, Ma KP, Chen LZ (2002) Photosynthetic gas exchange and leaflet movement of Robinia psedoacacia in relation to changing light environments. Acta Bot Sin 44:858–863Google Scholar
  45. Zhang XQ, Liu J, Welham CVJ, Liu CC, Li DN, Chen L, Wang RQ (2006) The effects of clonal integration on morphological plasticity and placement of daughter ramets in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). Flora 201:547–554Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fei Xu
    • 1
  • Weihua Guo
    • 1
  • Renqing Wang
    • 1
  • Weihong Xu
    • 1
  • Ning Du
    • 1
  • Yufang Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, College of Life SciencesShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations