Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 395–399 | Cite as

Petal: a reliable explant for direct bulblet regeneration of endangered wild populations of Fritillaria imperialis L.

  • Manijeh Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh
  • Ahmad Khalighi
  • Roohangiz Naderi
  • Manoochehr Sardari
  • Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Short Communication


Wild populations of Fritillaria imperialis L. are facing extinction and need urgent conservation. This paper presents an efficient system for in vitro direct bulblet regeneration of these populations by petal culturing of flower buds. Petals at different developmental stages, green-closed flower bud (before nectar secretion) and red-closed flower bud (beginning of nectar secretion), were used as explants, and the effects of various proportions of cytokinin to auxin on direct bulblet regeneration pathway were evaluated. More explants switched on direct regeneration pathway in combination of auxins (0.6 mg l−1 NAA + 0.4 mg l−1 IAA) with higher level of cytokinin (1 mg l−1 BAP). In contrast, auxins (0.6 mg l−1 NAA + 0.4 mg l−1 IAA) with lower level of cytokinin (0.1 mg l−1 BAP) produced more bulblets per regenerated explant. In green-closed flower bud stage, direct bulblets regenerated from the end of petal where it was connected to the receptacle, while nectar secretion site was the place of bulblet formation in red-closed flower bud stage. In addition, genotype-dependency of direct bulblet regeneration pathway was investigated by using two different wild populations of Fritillaria imperialis. This plant regeneration procedure was applicable to different Fritillaria genotypes and regenerated bulblets were normal.


Direct regeneration Endangered plant Fritillaria Genotype-dependency Nectar Plant conservation 





Indol-3-acetic acid


α-Naphthaleneacetic acid


Plant growth regulator


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manijeh Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh
    • 1
  • Ahmad Khalighi
    • 1
  • Roohangiz Naderi
    • 1
  • Manoochehr Sardari
    • 2
  • Esmaeil Ebrahimie
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  2. 2.Agricultural and Natural Resources Research CenterShahrekordIran
  3. 3.Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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