Petal: a reliable explant for direct bulblet regeneration of endangered wild populations of Fritillaria imperialis L.
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Wild populations of Fritillaria imperialis L. are facing extinction and need urgent conservation. This paper presents an efficient system for in vitro direct bulblet regeneration of these populations by petal culturing of flower buds. Petals at different developmental stages, green-closed flower bud (before nectar secretion) and red-closed flower bud (beginning of nectar secretion), were used as explants, and the effects of various proportions of cytokinin to auxin on direct bulblet regeneration pathway were evaluated. More explants switched on direct regeneration pathway in combination of auxins (0.6 mg l−1 NAA + 0.4 mg l−1 IAA) with higher level of cytokinin (1 mg l−1 BAP). In contrast, auxins (0.6 mg l−1 NAA + 0.4 mg l−1 IAA) with lower level of cytokinin (0.1 mg l−1 BAP) produced more bulblets per regenerated explant. In green-closed flower bud stage, direct bulblets regenerated from the end of petal where it was connected to the receptacle, while nectar secretion site was the place of bulblet formation in red-closed flower bud stage. In addition, genotype-dependency of direct bulblet regeneration pathway was investigated by using two different wild populations of Fritillaria imperialis. This plant regeneration procedure was applicable to different Fritillaria genotypes and regenerated bulblets were normal.
KeywordsDirect regeneration Endangered plant Fritillaria Genotype-dependency Nectar Plant conservation
Plant growth regulator
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