Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, 29:309

The role of the photosynthetic apparatus in cold acclimation of Lolium multiflorum. Characteristics of novel genotypes low-sensitive to PSII over-reduction

  • M. Rapacz
  • D. Gąsior
  • J. Kościelniak
  • A. Kosmala
  • Z. Zwierzykowski
  • M. W. Humphreys
Original Paper


During cold acclimation by higher plants, temperature perception via changes in redox state of Photosystem II (PSII) and subsequent acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to cold is very important for achieving freezing tolerance. These properties were studied in two groups (A and B) of the same backcross 3 (BC3) progeny derived from a triploid hybrid of Festuca pratensis (2×) × Lolium multiflorum (4×) backcrossed three times onto diploid L. multiflorum cultivars. Leaves of Group A plants formed at 20°C at medium-low light were unable to acclimate their photosynthetic apparatus to cold. Compared to Group B, the Group A plants were also more frost sensitive. This acclimation ability correlated with the freezing tolerance of the plants. However, leaves of the same Group A plants developed at 20°C, but under higher-light conditions had increased ability to acclimate their photosynthetic apparatus to cold. It was concluded that Group A plants may have impaired PSII temperature perception, and this then resulted in their poor capability to cold acclimate.


Chlorophyll fluorescence Freezing tolerance LoliumFestuca hybrids Photosynthesis PSII redox state Temperature perception 

List of abbreviations


Light energy absorbed by leaf cross-section


Cold acclimated plants


Pool size of electron acceptors from PSII (proportional to the oxidized plastoquinone pool)


Carotenoids (pool)




Amount of energy dissipated in PSII reaction centres per cross-section of the leaf


Quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport chain after QA per cross-section of the leaf


Fluorescence of leaves in the dark when all PSII reaction centres are open

\( {F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{{\text{0}}} \)

Fluorescence in leaves previously exposed to light darkened just before measurement

Fm and \( {F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{{\text{m}}} \)

Fluorescence when all PSII reaction centres are closed in dark- and light-exposed leaves, respectively


Steady state fluorescence in light-exposed leaves


Freezing tolerance

Fv and \( {F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{{\text{v}}} \)

Variable fluorescence in dark- and light-adapted leaves, respectively (Fv = Fm − F0, \( {F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{{\text{v}}} = {F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{{\text{m}}} - {F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{0} \))


Maximum quantum yield of PSII

\( {F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{{\text{v}}} {\user2{:}}{F}\ifmmode{'}\else$'$\fi_{{\text{m}}} \)

PSII antenna trapping efficiency


Fresh weight


Non-acclimated plants


Photosynthetic photon flux density


Photosystem II


Current quantum yield of PSII


Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence


The first stable electron acceptor in PSII


Photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence

RC/CSo and RC/CSm

Numbers of active reaction centres in the state of fully oxidized and reduced PSII reaction centre, respectively


Quantum yield of primary photochemistry (from reaction centre to QA) per cross-section of the leaf

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rapacz
    • 1
  • D. Gąsior
    • 1
  • J. Kościelniak
    • 1
  • A. Kosmala
    • 2
  • Z. Zwierzykowski
    • 2
  • M. W. Humphreys
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, Department of Plant PhysiologyAgricultural University of CracowKrakówPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Plant GeneticsPolish Academy of SciencesPoznańPoland
  3. 3.Institute of Grassland and Environmental ResearchAberystwythUK

Personalised recommendations