Advertisement

Sex-specific physiological and growth responses to water stress in Hippophae rhamnoides L. populations

  • Chunyang LiEmail author
  • Jian Ren
  • Jianxun Luo
  • Rongsen Lu
Article

Abstract

Dioecious plant species and those occupying diverse habitats may present special analytical problems to determine effects of environmental stress. Here, sex-specific physiological and growth responses of two contrasting sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) populations were recorded after exposure to different watering regimes. The populations used were from wet and dry climate regions in China, respectively. In the semi-controlled environmental study, the well-watered and water-deficiency plants which were watered to 100 % and 50 % field capacity were used, respectively. Sexual differences in height growth (HT), dry matter accumulation (DMA), root/shoot ratio (RS), specific leaf area (SLA), net photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) between the male and female individuals were detected under water-deficiency treatment in both populations tested. However, these sexual differences were not detected under well-watered treatment. On the other hand, compared with the wet climate population, the dry climate population showed lower HT, DMA, SLA, A and E, and higher RS under both watering regimes. The dry climate population also showed higher WUEi and δ13C as affected by water deficit than the wet climate population. These morphological and physiological responses to drought showed that the different populations and the different sexual individuals may employ different survival strategies under environmental stress. The male individuals and the dry climate population would have a conservative water-use strategy in response to drought stress.

Key words

Hippophae rhamnoides Dioecious species Climate populations Water regimes Growth parameters Gas exchange Carbon isotope 

References

  1. Allen G.A., Antos J.A. 1988. Relative reproductive effort in males and females of the dioecious shrub Oemleria cerasiformis. Oecologia 76: 111–118.Google Scholar
  2. Amdt S.K., Clifford S.C., Wanek W., Jones H.G., Popp M. 2001. Physiological and morphological adaptations of the fruit tree Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive drought stress. Tree Physiol. 21: 705–715.Google Scholar
  3. Brodribb T., Hill R.S. 1998. The photosynthetic drought physiology of a diverse group of southern hemisphere conifer species is correlated with minimum seasonal rainfall. Funct. Ecol. 12: 465–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourdeau P.F. 1958. Photosynthetic and respiratory rates in leaves of male and female quaking aspens. For. Sci. 4: 331–334.Google Scholar
  5. Cipollini M.L., Whigham D.F. 1994. Sexual dimorphism and cost of reproduction in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae). Am. J. Bot. 81: 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crawford R.M.M., Balfour J. 1983. Female predominant and sex ratios and physiological differentiation in arctic willows. J. Ecol. 71: 149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dawson T.E., Bliss L.C. 1989. Patterns of water use and the tissue water relations in the dioecious shrub, Salix arctica: the physiological basis for habitat partitioning between the sexes. Oecologia 79: 332–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawson T.E., Ehleringer J.R. 1993. Gender-specific physiology, cardon isotope discrimination, and habitat distribution in box elder, Acer negundo. Ecology 74: 798–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ehleringer J.R., Hall A.E., Farquhar G.D. (eds.) 1993. Stable Isotopes and Plant Carbon / Water Relations. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  10. Eppley S.M. 2001. Gender-specific selection during early life history stages in the dioecious grass Distichlis spicata. Ecology 82: 2022–2031.Google Scholar
  11. Espirito-Santo M.M., Madeira B.G., Neves F.S., Faria M.L., Fagundes M., Fernandes G.W. 2003. Sexual differences in reproductive phenology and their consequences for the demography of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), a dioecioustropical shrub. Ann. Bot. 91: 13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farquhar G.D., Ehleringer J.R., Hubick K.T. 1989. Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 40: 503–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freeman D.C., Klikoff L.G., Harper K.T. 1976. Differential resource utilization by the sexes of dioecious plants. Science 193: 597–599.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Freeman D.C., McArthur E.D. 1982. A comparison of twig water stress between males and females of six species of desert shrubs. For. Sci. 28: 304–308.Google Scholar
  15. Freeman D.C., Vitale J.J. 1985. The influence of environment on the sex ratio and fitness of spinach. Bot. Gaz. 146: 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gehring J.L., Monson R.K. 1994. Sexual differences in gas exchange and response to environmental stress in dioecious Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). Am. J. Bot. 81: 166–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibson A., Bachelard E.P., Hubick K.T. 1995. Relationship between climate and provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22: 453–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoffmann A.J., Alliende M.C. 1984. Interactions in the patterns of vegetative growth and reproduction in woody dioecious plants. Oecologia 61: 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jing S.W., Coley P.D. 1990. Dioecy and herbivory: the effect of growth rate on plant defense in Acer negundo. Oikos 58: 369–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones M.H., Macdonald S.E., Henry, G.H.R. 1999. Sex-and habitat- specific responses of a high arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change. Oikos 87: 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krischik V.A., Denno R.F. 1990. Patterns of growth, reprodution, defense, and herbivory in the dioecious shrub, Baccharis halimifolia (Compositae). Oecologia 83: 182–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leroux D., Stock W.D., Bond W.J., Maphanga D. 1996. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and δ13C in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E. grandis × camaldulensis and E. grandis × nitens grown under two irrigation regimes. Tree Physiol. 16: 497–502.Google Scholar
  23. Laporte M.M., Delph L.F. 1996. Sex-specific physiology and source-sink relations in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia. Oecologia 106: 63–72.Google Scholar
  24. Li C., Berninger F., Koskela J., Sonninen, E. 2000. Drought responses of Eucalyptus microtheca provenances depend on seasonality of rainfall in their place of origin. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27: 231–238.Google Scholar
  25. Li C., Wang K. 2003. Differences in drought responses of three contrasting Eucalyptus microtheca F. Muell. populations. For. Ecol. Manage. 179: 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lloyd D.G., Webb C.J. 1977. Secondary sex characters in plants. Bot. Rev. 43: 177–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lu R. 1992. Sea buckthorn — A multipurpose plant species for fragile mountains. ICIMOD Occasional. Paper No. 20. Kathmandu, Nepal. 62 p.Google Scholar
  28. Marshall J.D., Dawson T.E., Ehleringer J.R. 1993. Gender-related differences in gas exchange are not related to host quality in the xylem-tapping mistletoe, Phoradendron juniperinum (Viscaeae). Am. J. Bot. 35: 557–567.Google Scholar
  29. Popp J.W., Reinartz J.A. 1988. Sexual dimorphism in biomass allocation and clonal growth of Xanthoxylum americanum. Am. J. Bot. 75: 1732–1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Retuerto R., Lema B.F., Roiloa S.R., Obeso J.R. 2000. Gender, light and water effects in carbon isotope discrimination, and growth rates in the dioecious tree Ilex aquifolium. Funct. Biol. 14: 529–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tang X. 2002. Breeding in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides): Genetics of berry yield, quality and plant cold hardiness. University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Publication no.11. 48p.Google Scholar
  32. Thomas S.C., LaFrankie J.V. 1993. Sex, size, and interyear variation in flowering among dioecious trees of the Malayan rain forest. Ecology 74: 1529–1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vasiliauskas S.A., Aarssen L.W. 1992. Sex ratio and neighbor effects in monospecific stands of Juniperus virginiana. Ecology 73: 622–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang X., Griffin K.L. 2003. Sex-specific physiological and growth responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 in Silene latifolia Poiret. Global Change Biol. 9: 612–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang X.Z., Curtis P.S. 2001. Gender-specific responses of Populus tremuloides to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. New Phytol. 150: 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ward J.K., Dawson T.E., Ehleringer J.R. 2002. Responses of Acer negundo genders to interannual differences in water availability determined from cardon isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. Tree Physiol. 22(5): 339–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Department of Plant Physiology 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chunyang Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jian Ren
    • 1
  • Jianxun Luo
    • 3
  • Rongsen Lu
    • 1
  1. 1.Chengdu Institute of BiologyChinese Academy of SciencesChengduP. R. China
  2. 2.Department of Biosciences, Division of Genetics, Viikki BiocenterUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Sichuan Academy of ForestryChengduP. R. China

Personalised recommendations