Swarm Intelligence

, Volume 9, Issue 2–3, pp 205–227 | Cite as

FrogCOL and FrogMIS: new decentralized algorithms for finding large independent sets in graphs

  • Christian Blum
  • Borja Calvo
  • Maria J. Blesa


Finding large (and generally maximal) independent sets of vertices in a given graph is a fundamental problem in distributed computing. Applications include, for example, facility location and backbone formation in wireless ad hoc networks. In this paper, we study a decentralized (or distributed) algorithm inspired by the calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs, originally introduced for the graph-coloring problem, for its potential usefulness in the context of finding large independent sets. Moreover, we adapt this algorithm to directly produce maximal independent sets without the necessity of first producing a graph-coloring solution. Both algorithms are compared to a wide range of decentralized algorithms from the literature on a diverse set of benchmark instances for the maximal independent set problem. The results show that both algorithms compare very favorably to their competitors.


Swarm intelligence Self-desynchronization Maximal independent set Decentralized algorithms 



This work was supported by Projects TIN2012-37930, TIN2013-41272P and TIN2007-66523 of the Spanish Government, and Project 2009-SGR1137 of the Generalitat de Catalunya. In addition, support is acknowledged from IKERBASQUE (Basque Foundation for Science) and the Basque Saiotek and Research Groups 2013-2018 (IT-609-13) programs. Our experiments have been executed in the High Performance Computing Environment managed by RDlab (, and we would like to thank them for their support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the Basque Country UPV/EHUSan SebastianSpain
  2. 2.Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for ScienceBilbaoSpain
  3. 3.ALBCOM Research GroupUniversitat Politécnica de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain

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