A well known problem in the design of the control system for a swarm of robots concerns the definition of suitable individual rules that result in the desired coordinated behaviour. A possible solution to this problem is given by the automatic synthesis of the individual controllers through evolutionary or learning processes. These processes offer the possibility to freely search the space of the possible solutions for a given task, under the guidance of a user-defined utility function. Nonetheless, there exist no general principles to follow in the definition of such a utility function in order to reward coordinated group behaviours. As a consequence, task dependent functions must be devised each time a new coordination problem is under study. In this paper, we propose the use of measures developed in Information Theory as task-independent, implicit utility functions. We present two experiments in which three robots are trained to produce generic coordinated behaviours. Each robot is provided with rich sensory and motor apparatus, which can be exploited to explore the environment and to communicate with other robots. We show how coordinated behaviours can be synthesised through a simple evolutionary process. The only criteria used to evaluate the performance of the robotic group is the estimate of mutual information between the motor states of the robots.
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Sperati, V., Trianni, V. & Nolfi, S. Evolving coordinated group behaviours through maximisation of mean mutual information. Swarm Intell 2, 73–95 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11721-008-0017-1
- Evolutionary robotics
- Information theory
- Mutual information