Swarm Intelligence

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 33–57

Particle swarm optimization

An overview


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has undergone many changes since its introduction in 1995. As researchers have learned about the technique, they have derived new versions, developed new applications, and published theoretical studies of the effects of the various parameters and aspects of the algorithm. This paper comprises a snapshot of particle swarming from the authors’ perspective, including variations in the algorithm, current and ongoing research, applications and open problems.


Particle swarms Particle swarm optimization PSO Social networks Swarm theory Swarm dynamics Real world applications 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computing and Electronic SystemsUniversity of EssexEssexUK
  2. 2.WashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of ComputingGoldsmiths CollegeLondonUK

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