Advertisement

Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 1520–1530 | Cite as

Investigation on modeling parameters of concrete beams reinforced with basalt FRP bars

  • Jordan Carter
  • Aikaterini S. GenikomsouEmail author
Research Article
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars are widely used as internal reinforcement replacing the conventional steel bars to prevent from corrosion. Among the different types of FRP bars, basalt FRP (BFRP) bars have been used in different structural applications and, herein, three already tested concrete beams reinforced with BFRP bars are analyzed using three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA). The beams were tested in four-point bending. In the FEA the behavior of concrete is simulated using the “Concrete-Damaged Plasticity” model offered in ABAQUS software. The research presented here presents a calibrated model for nonlinear FEA of BFRP concrete beams to predict their response considering both the accuracy and the computational efficiency. The calibration process showed that the concrete model should be regularized using a mesh-dependent characteristic length and material-dependent post-yield fracture and crushing energies to provide accurate mesh-size independent results. FEA results were compared to the test results with regard to failure load and crack patterns. Both the test results and the numerical results were compared to the design predictions of ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12, where CSA S806-12 seems to overestimate the shear strength for two beams.

Keywords

basalt Fiber-reinforced polymer bars reinforced concrete beams finite element analysis damaged plasticity model design codes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University. The authors would like to thank the Centre for Advanced Computing for the high performance computing resources that were used.

References

  1. 1.
    American Concrete Institute (ACI). Guide for the Design and Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars, ACI 440.1R–15. Farmington Hills, MI: ACI Committee 440, 2015Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ross A. Basalt fibers: Alternative to glass. Component Technology, 2006, 12(4): 44–48Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Urbanski M, Lapko A, Garbacz A. Investigation on concrete beams reinforced with basalt rebars as an effective alternative of conventional R/C structures. Procedia Engineering, 2013, 57 (Supplement C): 1183–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tomlinson D, Fam A. Performance of concrete beams reinforced with basalt FRP for flexure and shear. Journal of Composites for Construction, 2015, 19(2): 04014036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    El Refai A, Abed F. Concrete contribution to shear strength of beams reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced bars. Journal of Composites for Construction, 2015, 20(4): 1–13Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Issa M A, Ovitigala T, Ibrahim M. Shear behavior of basalt fiber reinforced concrete beams with and without basalt FRP stirrups. Journal of Composites for Construction, 2016, 20(4): 04015083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dassault Systems Simulia Corp. ABAQUS Analysis User’S Manual 6.12-3. 2012Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hillerborg A, Modéer M, Petersson P E. Analysis of crack formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite elements. Cement and Concrete Research, 1976, 6(6): 773–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canadian Standards Association (CSA). Design and Construction of Building Structures with Fibre-Reinforced Polymers, S806-12. Mississauga, ON: CSA Group, 2012Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    European Committee for Concrete. CEB-FIP-model Code 1990: Design Code. London: Thomas Telford, 1993Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pramono E, Willam K. Fracture energy-based plasticity formulation of plain concrete. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1989, 115(6): 1183–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Imran I, Pantazopoulou S J. Plasticity model for concrete under triaxial compression. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 2001, 127(3): 281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grassl P, Lundgren K, Gylltoft K. Concrete in compression: A plasticity theory with a novel hardening law. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2002, 39(20): 5205–5223zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kachanov L M. Introduction to Continuum Damage Mechanics. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mazars J. A model of unilateral elastic damageable material and its application to concrete. In: Wittmann F H, ed. Fracture Toughness and Fracture Energy of Concrete. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1986, 61–71Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mazars J, Pijaudier-Cabot G. Continuum damage theory-application to concrete. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1989, 115(2): 345–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lemaitre J, Chaboche J L. Mechanics of Solid Materials. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simo J C, Ju J W. Strain- and stress- based continuum damage models-I. Formulation. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 1987, 23(7): 821–840zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Simo J C, Ju J W. Strain- and stress-based continuum damage model-II. Computational aspects. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 1987, 23(7): 841–869zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ju J W. On energy-based coupled elastoplastic damage theories: Constitutive modeling and computational aspects. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 1989, 25(7): 803–833zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lubliner J, Oliver J, Oller S, Oñate E. A plastic-damage model for concrete. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 1989, 25(3): 299–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee J, Fenves G L. Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1998, 124(8): 892–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Genikomsou A S, Polak M A. Finite element analysis of punching shear of concrete slabs using damaged plasticity model in ABAQUS. Engineering Structures, 2015, 98(4): 38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hillerborg A. The theoretical basis of a method to determine the fracture energy G F of concrete. Materials and Structures, 1985, 18(4): 291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scanlon A. Time dependent deflections of reinforced concrete slabs. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1971Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bergan P G, Holand I. Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 1979, 17–18: 443–467zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bažant Z, Oh B. Crack band theory for fracture of concrete. Materials and Structures, 1983, 16(3): 155–177Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Grassl P, Jirásek M. Damage-plastic model for concrete failure. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2006, 43(22–23): 7166–7196zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cicekli U, Voyiadjis G, Abu Al-Rub R. A plasticity and anisotropic damage model for plain concrete. International Journal of Plasticity, 2007, 23(10–11): 1874–1900zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kotsovos M D. Effect of testing techniques on the post-ultimate behavior of concrete in compression. Materials and Structures, 1983, 16(1): 3–12Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Mier J G M. Strain-Softening of Concrete under Multiaxial Loading Conditions. Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1984Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jansen D C, Shah S P. Effect of length on compressive strain softening of concrete. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1997, 123(1): 25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Markeset G, Hillerborg A. Softening of concrete in compression—Localization and size effects. Cement and Concrete Research, 1995, 25(4): 702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Van Mier J G M. Concrete Fracture: A Multiscale Approach. New York: CRC Press, 2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nakamura H, Higai T. Compressive Fracture Energy and Fracture Zone Length of Concrete. Reston, VA: ASCE, 2001Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations