Physical and mechanical properties of municipal solid waste incineration residues with cement and coal fly ash using X-ray Computed Tomography scanners

  • Toshifumi MukunokiEmail author
  • Ta Thi Hoai
  • Daisuke Fukushima
  • Teppei Komiya
  • Takayuki Shimaoka
Research Article


A significant volume of Municipal Solid Waste incineration bottom ash and fly ash (i.e., incineration residues) are commonly disposed as landfill. Meanwhile, reclamation of landfill sites to create a new land space after their closure becomes an important goal in the current fewer and fewer land availability scenario in many narrow countries. The objective of this study is to reclaim incineration residue materials in the landfill site by using cement and coal fly ash as stabilizers aiming at performing quality check as new developed materials before future construction. Indeed, physical and mechanical properties of these new materials should be initially examined at the micro scale, which is the primary fundamental for construction at larger scale. This research examines quantitative influences of using the combination of cement and coal fly ash at different ratio on the internal structure and ability of strength enhancement of incineration residues when suffering from loading. Couple of industrial and micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners combined with an image analysis technique were utilized to characterize and visualize the behavior and internal structure of the incineration residues-cement-coal fly ash mixture under the series of unconfined compression test and curing period effect. Nine types of cement solidified incineration residues in term of different curing period (i.e., 7, 14, 28 days) and coal fly ash addition content (i.e., 0%, 9%, 18%) were scanned before and after unconfined compression tests. It was shown that incineration residues solidified by cement and coal fly ash showed an increase in compression strength and deformation modulus with curing time and coal fly ash content. Three-dimension computed tomography images observation and analysis confirmed that solidified incineration residues including incineration bottom and fly ash as well as cement and coal fly ash have the deliquescent materials. Then, it was studied that stabilized parts play a more important role than spatial void distribution in increment or reduction of compression strength.


mechanical property municipal solid waste incineration residues coal fly ash unconfined compression test image analysis X-Ray Computed Tomography scanners 


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This research was supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (3K143001) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshifumi Mukunoki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ta Thi Hoai
    • 2
    • 3
  • Daisuke Fukushima
    • 2
  • Teppei Komiya
    • 4
  • Takayuki Shimaoka
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Advanced Science and TechnologyGraduate School of Kumamoto UniversityKumamoto cityJapan
  2. 2.Graduate school of Science and TechnologyKumamoto UniversityKumamoto cityJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Geology, VNU University of ScienceVietnam National University HanoiHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.Water and Material Cycles System, Faculty of EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuoka cityJapan

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