Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 110–122 | Cite as

Effect of anisotropic characteristics on the mechanical behavior of asphalt concrete overlay

  • Lingyun You
  • Zhanping YouEmail author
  • Kezhen Yan
Research Article


Asphalt concrete (AC) overlays placed over old asphalt pavement have become an alternative to repairing and reinforcing pavements. The strength contributed by the AC overlay is strongly influenced by the anisotropic properties of the pavement material. This study was conducted to analyze the influence of anisotropy, modulus gradient properties, and the condition of the AC overlay and old pavement contact plane on the mechanical behaviors of AC overlays, as well as to quantify the influence of the degree of anisotropy on the mechanical behaviors of AC overlay by a sensitivity analysis (SA). The mechanical behaviors of the AC overlay were numerically obtained using the three-dimensional finite element method with the aid of ABAQUS, a commercial program. Variations in the AC overlay’s modulus as a function of temperature as well as the contact state between the AC overlay and AC layer were considered. The SA is based on standardized regression coefficients method. Comparing the mechanical behavior in terms of surface deflection, stress, and strain of the anisotropy model against those corresponding to the isotropic model under static loads show that the anisotropic properties had greater effects on the mechanical behavior of the AC overlay. In addition, the maximum shear stress in the AC overlay was the most significant output parameter affected by the degree of anisotropy. Therefore, future research concerning the reinforcement and repair of pavements should consider the anisotropic properties of the pavement materials.


asphalt concrete overlay anisotropy temperature gradients modulus gradients finite element simulation sensitivity analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dave E V, Buttlar W G. Thermal reflective cracking of asphalt concrete overlays. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 2010, 11(6): 477–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dempsey B. Development and performance of interlayer stress-absorbing composite in asphalt concrete overlays. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2002, 1809: 175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khodaii A, Fallah S, Moghadas Nejad F. Effects of geosynthetics on reduction of reflection cracking in asphalt overlays. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 2009, 27(1): 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang Y. The effects of using reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) on the long-term performance of asphalt concrete overlays. Construction & Building Materials, 2016, 120: 335–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuo C M, Hsu T R. Traffic induced reflective cracking on pavements with geogrid-reinforced asphalt concrete overlay. In: Proceedings of the 82th Annual Meeting at the Transportation Research Board (CD-ROM). 2003Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller S, Hartmann T, Dorée A. Measuring and visualizing hot mix asphalt concrete paving operations. Automation in Construction, 2011, 20(4): 474–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adu-Osei A, Little D, Lytton R. Cross-anisotropic characterization of unbound granular materials. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2001, 1757: 82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim S H, Little D, Masad E. Simple methods to estimate inherent and stress-induced anisotropy of aggregate base. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2005, 1913: 24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang L, Hoyos L R, Wang J, Voyiadjis G, Abadie C. Anisotropic properties of asphalt concrete: Characterization and implications for pavement design and analysis. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2005, 17(5): 535–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yan K, Xu H, You L. Analytical layer-element approach for wave propagation of transversely isotropic pavement. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 2016, 17(3): 275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Masad S, Little D, Masad E. Analysis of flexible pavement response and performance using isotropic and anisotropic material properties. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 2006, 132(4): 342–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oh J H, Lytton R, Fernando E. Modeling of pavement response using nonlinear cross-anisotropy approach. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 2006, 132(6): 458–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mao Y, Robertson J M, Mu X, Mather P T, Qi H J. Thermoviscoplastic behaviors of anisotropic shape memory elastomeric composites for cold programmed non-affine shape change. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2015, 85: 219–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hamdia K M, Msekh M A, Silani M, Vu-Bac N, Zhuang X, Nguyen-Thoi T, Rabczuk T. Uncertainty quantification of the fracture properties of polymeric nanocomposites based on phase field modeling. Composite Structures, 2015, 133: 1177–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vu-Bac N, Rafiee R, Zhuang X, Lahmer T, Rabczuk T. Uncertainty quantification for multiscale modeling of polymer nanocomposites with correlated parameters. Composites. Part B, Engineering, 2015, 68: 446–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hamdia K M, Silani M, Zhuang X, et al. Stochastic analysis of the fracture toughness of polymeric nanoparticle composites using polynomial chaos expansions. International Journal of Fracture, 2017, 206(2): 215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hamdia K M, Silani M, Zhuang X, He P, Rabczuk T. Stochastic predictions of bulk properties of amorphous polyethylene based on molecular dynamics simulations. Mechanics of Materials, 2014, 68: 70–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nazarian S, Alvarado G. Impact of temperature gradient on modulus of asphaltic concrete layers. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2006, 18(4): 492–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arulrajah A, Disfani M M, Horpibulsuk S, Suksiripattanapong C, Prongmanee N. Physical properties and shear strength responses of recycled construction and demolition materials in unbound pavement base/subbase applications. Construction & Building Materials, 2014, 58: 245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pasetto M, Baldo N. Experimental evaluation of high performance base course and road base asphalt concrete with electric arc furnace steel slags. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010, 181(1–3): 938–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ozer H, Al-Qadi I L, Wang H, Leng Z. Characterisation of interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt overlay and concrete pavements: Modelling and in-situ response to accelerated loading. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 2012, 13(2): 181–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guo C, Wang F, Zhong Y. Assessing pavement interfacial bonding condition. Construction & Building Materials, 2016, 124: 85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feng Y, Okamoto R J, Namani R, Genin G M, Bayly P V. Measurements of mechanical anisotropy in brain tissue and implications for transversely isotropic material models of white matter. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2013, 23: 117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sone H, Zoback M D. Mechanical properties of shale-gas reservoir rocks—Part 1: Static and dynamic elastic properties and anisotropy. Geophysics, 2013, 78(5): D381–D392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Masad E, Tashman L, Somedavan N, Little D. Micromechanicsbased analysis of stiffness anisotropy in asphalt mixtures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2002, 14(5): 374–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Motola Y, Uzan J. Anisotropy of field-compacted asphalt concrete material. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 2007, 35(1): 103–105Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ju D. Anisotropy of asphalt concrete and the influence in pavement. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Nanjing: Southeast University, 2011 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang Q J, Huang Z Y, Liu Z. Analysis of gradient modulus of asphalt pavements. Low Temperature Architecture Technology, 2011, 33: 48–50 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Buttlar W G, Paulino G H, Song S H. Application of graded finite elements for asphalt pavements. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 2006, 132(3): 240–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li F, Sun L, Fang J. Pavement structure shear stress analysis considering stiffness gradients of asphalt course. Transportation Science and Technology, 2005, (4): 1–3 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mu F, Vandenbossche J. Establishing effective linear temperature gradients for ultrathin bonded concrete overlays on asphalt pavements. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2012, 2305: 24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shen J A. Road Performance of Asphalt and Asphalt Mixture. Beijing: China Communications Press, 2001 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rushing J F, Little D N. Static creep and repeated load as rutting performance tests for airport HMA mix design. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2014, 26(9): 04014055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rushing J F, Little D N, Garg N. Selecting a rutting performance test for airport asphalt mixture design. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2014, 15(Suppl 1): 172–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rushing J F, Little D N. Creep and repeated creep-recovery as rutting performance tests for airport HMA mix design. In: Proceedings of Transportation Research Board 2013 Annual Meeting. Washington, 2013Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sun L. Structural Behavior Theory of Asphalt Pavements. Beijing: China Communications Press, 2005 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    You L, Yan K, Hu Y, Zollinger D G. Spectral element solution for transversely isotropic elastic multi-layered structures subjected to axisymmetric loading. Computers and Geotechnics, 2016, 72: 67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Armero F, Kim J. Three-dimensional finite elements with embedded strong discontinuities to model material failure in the infinitesimal range. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 2012, 91(12): 1291–1330MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mahmoud E, Saadeh S, Hakimelahi H, Harvey J. Extended finiteelement modelling of asphalt mixtures fracture properties using the semi-circular bending test. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2014, 15(1): 153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jiang G, Li J, Tang G. A modeling method of the bolted joint structure and analysis of its stiffness characteristics. In: Lei F, Xu Q, Zhang G, eds. Machinery, Materials Science and Engineering Applications. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Balkema, 2016, 229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    de Melo V V, Carosio G L C. Evaluating differential evolution with penalty function to solve constrained engineering problems. Expert Systems with Applications, 2012, 39(9): 7860–7863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Albrecher H, Cheung E C, Thonhauser S. Randomized observation periods for the compound Poisson risk model: The discounted penalty function. Scandinavian Actuarial Journal, 2013, 2013(6): 424–452MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ryzhii V, Satou A, Otsuji T, Ryzhii M, Mitin V, ShurMS. Dynamic effects in double graphene-layer structures with inter-layer resonanttunnelling negative conductivity. Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics, 2013, 46(31): 315107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    de Beer M, Maina J, Netterberg F. Mechanistic modelling of weak interlayers in flexible and semi-flexible road pavements: Part 2. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, 2012, 54(1): 43–54Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Canestrari F, Ferrotti G, Lu X, Millien A, Partl M N, Petit C, Phelipot-Mardelé A, Piber H, Raab C. Mechanical testing of interlayer bonding in asphalt pavements. In: Partl M N, Bahia H U, Canestrar F, de la Roche C, Di Benedetto H, Piber H, Sybilski D, eds. Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials. Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, 303–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mhanna M, Sadek M, Shahrour I. Numerical modeling of trafficinduced ground vibration. Computers and Geotechnics, 2012, 39: 116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xia K, Yang Y. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of tire/ ground interaction. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 2012, 36(4): 498–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hu C, Ma J, Yu Y, Luo Y. Optimal design on dowel length for cement concrete pavement. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 2016, 9(6): 414–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thakur J K, Han J, Pokharel S K, Parsons R L. Performance of geocell-reinforced recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) bases over weak subgrade under cyclic plate loading. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 2012, 35: 14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Khavassefat P, Jelagin D, Birgisson B. A computational framework for viscoelastic analysis of flexible pavements under moving loads. Materials and Structures, 2012, 45(11): 1655–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    You L, Yan K, Hu Y, Liu J, Ge D. Spectral element method for dynamic response of transversely isotropic asphalt pavement under impact load. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2018, 19(1): 223–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gajewski J, Sadowski T. Sensitivity analysis of crack propagation in pavement bituminous layered structures using a hybrid system integrating artificial neural networks and finite element method. Computational Materials Science, 2014, 82: 114–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee J W, Lee M G, Barlat F. Finite element modeling using homogeneous anisotropic hardening and application to spring-back prediction. International Journal of Plasticity, 2012, 29: 13–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kim S K, Lee C S, Kim J H, Kim M H, Lee J M. Computational evaluation of resistance of fracture capacity for SUS304L of liquefied natural gas insulation system under cryogenic temperatures using ABAQUS user-defined material subroutine. Materials & Design, 2013, 50: 522–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vu-Bac N, Lahmer T, Zhang Y, Zhuang X, Rabczuk T. Stochastic predictions of interfacial characteristic of polymeric nanocomposites (PNCs). Composites. Part B, Engineering, 2014, 59: 80–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vu-Bac N, Silani M, Lahmer T, Zhuang X, Rabczuk T. A unified framework for stochastic predictions of mechanical properties of polymeric nanocomposites. Computational Materials Science, 2015, 96: 520–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vu-Bac N, Lahmer T, Zhuang X, Nguyen-Thoi T, Rabczuk T. A software framework for probabilistic sensitivity analysis for computationally expensive models. Advances in Engineering Software, 2016, 100: 19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  2. 2.College of Civil EngineeringHunan UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations