Advertisement

Frontiers in Energy

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 466–480 | Cite as

Abating transport GHG emissions by hydrogen fuel cell vehicles: Chances for the developing world

  • Han Hao
  • Zhexuan Mu
  • Zongwei Liu
  • Fuquan Zhao
Research Article
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Fuel cell vehicles, as the most promising clean vehicle technology for the future, represent the major chances for the developing world to avoid high-carbon lock-in in the transportation sector. In this paper, by taking China as an example, the unique advantages for China to deploy fuel cell vehicles are reviewed. Subsequently, this paper analyzes the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 19 fuel cell vehicle utilization pathways by using the life cycle assessment approach. The results show that with the current grid mix in China, hydrogen from water electrolysis has the highest GHG emissions, at 3.10 kgCO2/km, while by-product hydrogen from the chlor-alkali industry has the lowest level, at 0.08 kgCO2/km. Regarding hydrogen storage and transportation, a combination of gas-hydrogen road transportation and single compression in the refueling station has the lowest GHG emissions. Regarding vehicle operation, GHG emissions from indirect methanol fuel cell are proved to be lower than those from direct hydrogen fuel cells. It is recommended that although fuel cell vehicles are promising for the developing world in reducing GHG emissions, the vehicle technology and hydrogen production issues should be well addressed to ensure the life-cycle low-carbon performance.

Keywords

hydrogen fuel cell vehicle life cycle assessment energy consumption greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions China 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71403142, 71774100, and 71690241) and Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST (YESS20160140).

References

  1. 1.
    Hardman S, Chandan A, Shiu E, Steinberger-Wilckens R. Consumer attitudes to fuel cell vehicles post trial in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41(15): 6171–6179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Campanari S, Manzolini G, Garcia de la Iglesia F. Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well-to-wheel driving cycle simulations. Journal of Power Sources, 2009, 186(2): 464–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schafer A, Heywood J B, Weiss M A. Future fuel cell and internal combustion engine automobile technologies: a 25-year life cycle and fleet impact assessment. Energy, 2006, 31(12): 2064–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ekdunge P, Raberg M. The fuel cell vehicle analysis of energy use, emissions and cost. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 1998, 23(5): 381–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang M. Fuel choices for fuel-cell vehicles: well-to-wheels energy and emission impacts. Journal of Power Sources, 2002, 112(1): 307–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paster M D, Ahluwalia R K, Berry G, et al. Hydrogen storage technology options for fuel cell vehicles: well-to-wheel costs, energy efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions. Fuel and Energy Abstracts, 2011, 36(22): 14534–14551Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Felgenhauer M F, Pellow M A, Benson S M, Hamacher T. Economic and environmental prospects of battery and fuel cell vehicles for the energy transition in German communities. Energy Procedia, 2016, 99: 380–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Felgenhauer M F, Pellow M A, Benson S M, Hamacher T. Evaluating co-benefits of battery and fuel cell vehicles in a community in California. Energy, 2016, 114: 360–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Offer G J, Howey D, Contestabile M, Clague R, Brandon N P. Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system. Energy Policy, 2010, 38(1): 24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wagner U, Eckl R, Tzscheutschler P. Energetic life cycle assessment of fuel cell powertrain systems and alternative fuels in Germany. Energy, 2006, 31(14): 3062–3075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ahmadi P, Kjeang E. Comparative life cycle assessment of hydrogen fuel cell passenger vehicles in different Canadian provinces. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40 (38): 12905–12917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Winter U, Weidner H. Hydrogen for the mobility of the future results of GM/Opel’s well-to-wheel studies in North America and Europe. Fuel Cells, 2003, 3(3): 76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Han W, Zhang G, Xiao J, Bénard P, Chahine R. Demonstrations and marketing strategies of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in China. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39(25): 13859–13872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang L, Yu J, Ren J, Ma L, Zhang W, Liang H. How can fuel cell vehicles bring a bright future for this dragon? Answer by multicriteria decision making analysis. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, 41(39): 17183–17192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xu X, Xu B, Dong J, Liu X. Near-term analysis of a roll-out strategy to introduce fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen stations in Shenzhen China. Applied Energy, 2017, 196: 229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang D, Zamel N, Jiao K, Zhou Y, Yu S, Du Q, Yin Y. Life cycle analysis of internal combustion engine, electric and fuel cell vehicles for China. Energy, 2013, 59: 402–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    SAE-China.Technology Roadmap for Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicles. Beijing: China Machine Press, 2016 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yi B. Large scale demonstration and hydrogen source of fuel cell vehicle. In: 2nd Fuel Cell Vehicle Congress, Rugao, China, 2017 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ou X, Yan X, Zhang X. Using coal for transportation in China: life cycle GHG of coal-based fuel and electric vehicle, and policy implications. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2010, 4(5): 878–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen Y. Life cycle ecological benefit evaluation of automobile parts. Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree. Changsha: Hunan University, 2014 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li Y. Research on evaluating the several methods of hydrogen production technology by life cycle assessment. Dissertation for the Master’s Degree. Xi’an: Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, 2010 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pan H, Wang Q. Economic and technical comparison of three typical coal gasification technologies for hydrogen preparation. Shanxi Science and Technology, 2016, 31(3): 42–47 (in Chinese)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu G. Cost analysis of hydrogen production by NG reformation. Engineering Technology, 2016, 11: 00287–00289 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    GB 21257–2014. The Norm of Energy Consumption Per Unit Product of Caustic Soda. Beijing: Standards Press of China, 2014 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sun Y. Assessment and countermeasure study of coal-based methanol cleaner production based on life cycle assessment (LCA): a case study of a classical coal-based methanol process. Dissertation for the Master’s Degree. Shanghai: Fudan University, 2013 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tang L, Qiu L, Yao L, et al. Review on research and developments of hydrogen liquefaction systems. Journal of Refrigeration, 2011, 32 (6): 1–8 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen C. Development of 300 m3 liquid hydrogen storage tank for transportation in vehicle. Dissertation for the Master’s Degree. Harbin: Harbin Institute of Technology, 2015 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    GB 24163–2009. Periodic Inspection and Evaluation of Steel Cylinder for the Storage of Compressed Natural Gas for Stations. Beijing: Standards Press of China, 2009 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu J, Bai G, Ji M. Method for advancement evaluation of natural gas liquefaction process. Chemical Engineering (Albany, N.Y.), 2016, 44(11): 69–73 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kong W, Li Q, Wang X. Analysis on energy saving and emission reduction of electric vehicles based upon life-cycle energy efficiency. Electric Power, 2012, 45(9): 64–67 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2016 China Energy Statistical Yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2016 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ou X, Zhang X, Chang S. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations. Energy Policy, 2010, 38(1): 406–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dong J, Liu X, Xu X, Zhang S. Comparative life cycle assessment of hydrogen pathways from fossil sources in China. International Journal of Energy Research, 2016, 40(15): 2105–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy; China Automotive Energy Research CenterTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and EnergyTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations